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Saturday, January 1, 2011

2nd Year : Physiology Tests/Prof Viva Questions

Exam Type
Question Asked
Examiner
Correct Answer
Class tests/send ups


composition of csf
difference b/w cerebral and systemic circulation
types of movements
classification of tremors
differnece b/w pyramidal and extra pyramidal syndromes
reason of pendular knee jerk in cerbellar lesions
cerebellar funstion tests
properties of reflex activity +receptors
neglect syndrome
somatotopy,tonotopy,retinotopy
location of centre of micturition
aphasia and dysarthria
myelography
principles of neurological diagnosis
jacksonain epilepsy
quecenstedts sign

light n dark adaptation
purkinje shift phenomenon
reason of wearing red goggles?
structure of basilar membrane
diff b/w OHC and IHC
neurotransmitter of IHC and evidence?


aldosterone escape
differnece b/w exopthalmos and proptosis
signs of tetany
grades of exopthalmos
myxodema
degradation of catecholamines
ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
TRH

ovarian cycle(the only question heard from repro)

conditiones reflex(saliva)
gastric function tets
pancreatic function tests
vomiting
hormones of duodenum
CCK
justify role of duodenum as pituitary of GIT
alkaline tide
gtt

pain(almost anything can be asked)-pathways {mention lat. spino and trigemminal lem.}-which pain fibres activate reticular formation{dull pain fibres}-fast and slow pain{diff} etc.
diff btw cretin and dwarf
hypo and hyper parathyroidism and thyroidism-many questions
ovarian func test
pregnancy tests
blood bile,blood aqueous, blood brain, blood testis barriors
vol of csf in ventricles and sub arachanoid space seperately
diff btw romberg test and sign
definition if humunculus
thyroid func tests
hormonal conditions causing hypertension(Acro,Conn's syn,Pheochromocytoma,Cushing}
what do u mean by plethora{red well- fed face of chushing syn)
diabetes insipidus
ablation of area 3,1,2
reaction time of ankle jerk in thyrotoxicosis
properties of cervical mucus at various stages of cycle(glass slide properties}
sham rage and Sham feeding
hirsutism...and causes
what is BLOOD BILE barrier?
what is its function?
which drugs can cross this barrier and which drugs cannot?


ovary function test
hCG
blood bile barrier
spinnbarkeit (p.393)
pain pathway
taste pathway
double bohr effect (p.402)
mount everest in utero (p.416)
difference between cretinism and dwarfism
actions of thyroid hormones
throid functions tests
thyrotoxicosis
hypocalcemia
what is homonculus
hypo/hyper thyroidism
cryptorchidism
functions of inner outer hair cells
EEG waves
volume of csf in ventricles (30ml) / sub-arachnoid space (120ml)
csf pressure (80-120mm H20)

What is stereognosis?
Where is the lesion of astereognosis?
What is the effect of destroying visual cortex?
Hcl production
permissive action
difference b/w T3 and T4
Endolymph and Perilymph
Thyrotoxicosis
Reason for tremors in Pakinsonism
where Fe is absorbed
Acromegaly
Near Point
Dark Current
Conn's syndrome
Renin-Angiotension syndrome
Testicular FT
Spinnbarkeit
Ovary FT
Myxoedema
Hirsutism
Adrenarche
Cushing reflex
Cushing syndrome
Humunculus
Thalamic humunculus
Cerbellar humunculus

paradoxial sleep ( i think REM SLEEP) not sure...
aids dementia
dejerine roussy syndrome
pure section of pyramidal tract ( ventral aspect of brainstem)
gastric waves...
GH levels as well as functions
Cause of pigmentation in ADDISON's disease
role of raphe system in PAIN...
effect of transection above T1...(decrease in blood pressure)

Liver Function Tests
Sham Feeding
Sham Rage

Other questions:

Reduced eye
Dark Current
Dioptre definition
Decibel definition

centre of condition reflex(amygdala)
in parkinsonism which muscles have more tone( flexors that is y attitude of total flexion)
sham rage (reason+features)
satiety centre
stimulus of renin release
stimulus of release of angiotensinogen
Kl├╝ver-Bucy syndrome
hypothalamic functions...

CCK..functions ?
wht is Cholecystogram
Satiety centre..functions..?
Fluid regulating centre..describe it...?

theyyhoon rhouzzay syndrome....(yup thats the way he askd)
ablation of hypothalamus...(dnt say the person wd die...tell HOW wud he die)
why paraplegia in flexion...why in extension...(WHY WHY WHY)
cochlear microphones (uurghh!)
reasons behind phantom limb
pain pathway...the type of nerve fibres
Porf AKram

Class tests/send ups
types of movement
A voluntry movemnts dat include skilled as well as ballistic movments
B invountry like tremors nd refelex movments...

components of movments
like flexon,extesnion etc...

mechanism of tremors in throtoxcosis
T3 increses the excitalilty of nervous sysyem...

Tremors in Cerebellum
imbalance bw Dopamine nd Acytycholine

Blood brin barrier bw blood nd brain
Blood csf barrir bw choriod plexus ad brain
blood bile barrier bw hepatocytes nd blood Tetracycline can cross it bt Penecillin cant cross

sleep is Paradoxical... coz on one side there is REM nd on the other there is Hypotonia as well as decreased blood pressure

brain stem(last part of brain to die) function tests... cranial nerve nuclei tests....

Ovarina function tests...
basal body temp... hormone levels during diff phases...

Nerve growth facotrs are present in saliva like so nerve can grow if cut nd grwn in saliva...

clasp knife rigidity in case of lesion of xtrapyramidal tract
clasp knife spasticicty in case of pyramidal...

Central satiety mediated by brian
peripheral satiety mediated by stomach

in slow pain Reticular system... so person cant sleep...

Gastric waves include BER nd gastric movemnts

types of Obesity... apple type nd pear type

Vitiligo in Addisons disease... first there is Hyperplasia of melanocytes causing pigmentaiton but then these die leading to formation of white spots...

pigmentation occurs due ACTH which has similar structure to MSH....

Neglect syndrome/hemi-inintention syndrome..
Prof Akram

Class tests/send ups
Class Test of Motor system of CNS:
Q-1:
a- give the organization of LMN. What is the feature of LMN lesion?
b- Draw and label the normal Reflex arc and influence of higher centers?
Q-2:
a- Describe the changes that occur on account of the hemisection of the spinal cord?
b- Give the role of the representation of the movement in the motor cortex?
Q-3:
a- Describe cerebellar function test?
b- What are the principles of neurological diagnosis?
Dr Akram
See Purple Physio book
Class tests/send ups
Class test of Special Senses.

Q-1:
a- Phototransduction in rods? (see gyton)
b-Accomodation Reflex? (Purkinje experiment , reduced eye, ciliary muscle and ligaments, and presbyopia)

Q-2:
a- Draw Organ of Corti? describe Inner and Outer Hair Cells?
b- Tympani Reflex
c- Astigmatism

Q-3:
a- Draw taste bud? Descirbe Basic tastes?
b- Olfaction Characteristics?
c- Draw Olfactory tract?
Dr Akram
See purple book to pass !
Class tests/send ups
Class test of Endocrinology:

Q-1:
a- Possible role of GH causing Aging ?
b- Describe in Detail the Physiological effect of glucocorticoid ?

Q-2:
a- discuss Fat Metabolism in diabetes mellitus?
b- Compare and Contrast the Clinical Features of Thyrotoxicosis with Adult Hypothyroidism?

Q-3: write Notes on:
a-hypocalcemic tetany
b-conn's syndrome
c hypothalamo-hypophyseal system
Dr Akram
see purple book
Class tests/send ups
Test of Reproduction.

Q-1: Describe the various factors which can lead to abnormal spermatogenesis?

Q-2: Write short notes on:
a- Pregnancy function tests
b- menopause

Q-3:
Mechanism of action, regulation of secretion and effect on muscle developement and bone growth of testosteron?

Q-4: Give endometral and ovarian changes during menstrual cycle
Dr Akram
Purple book..
Class tests/send ups
Send up exams: physiology 2007
Total Marks-90
pass marks-45
attempt 5 question . question no. 1 is compulsory.

Q-1:
a- draw and label two cross sections of spinal cord which show the *laminae* and tracts?(4,4)
b- Give principles and basis of neurological diagnosis?(5,5)

Q-2:
a- Classify tremors. compare and contrast Tremors of Parkinsonism and cerebellar diseases(4,4)
b- Describe the physiological basis of cerebellar disease? (10)

Q-3:
a- Describe the Genesis of EEG. Compare and contrast NON-REM sleep With REM sleep? (4,4)
b- What is memory? How it is stored? Give features of Korsakoff amnesia? (3,3,4)

Q-4:
a- Describe the properties of basilar membrane of Cochlea. how it responds to different Sound frequency? (4,4)
b- How sound energy is converted to electrical energy? Describe presbyacusis? (5,5)

Q-5:
a- Describe the clinical features of Congenital and adult hypothyroidism? (5,10)
b- give the mechanism of the hyperexcitability in tetany?(3)

Q-6: write notes on:

a- Actions of testosteron(7)
b-pregnancy tests(4)
c- phototransduction in rods(7)
Dr Akram
see phsyio..
Professional (Annual)
What is iron lung?
Prof. M. Akram
It's a mechanical ventilation system, working on negative pressure mechanism.

(Check the exact answer in Dr. Akram's book, as that's the best source for his questions)
Professional (Annual)
which structure is called the lady secretary of brain?
dr akram
thalamus(i think so)
Professional (Annual)
Neurotransmiters in basal ganglia...
external (FJ)

Professional (Annual)
name the neurotransmitter in hair cells?
is it excitatory or inhibitory?
name the antibiotics that damage the hair cells
wat structure do they damage..
functions og inner n outer hair cells
Dr Akram

Professional (Annual)
what is the difference between aphasia n dysarthria?
what do u mean by word blindness n word deafness?
what lesion causes hemiattention syndrome
Dr Akram

Professional (Annual)
what is ovulation?
name the hormones of ovary
name the types of oetrogens
r oestrogens formed in males?how?
what is puerpeurium
functions of insulin
mechanism of action of insulin
diabetes mellitus
centre for face recognition
components of gastric juice
site of formation of HCl in gastric juice/ 

extrnal from pmc

Professional (Annual)
name the signs and symptoms of cerebellar disorders?
what is dysarthria? test to confirm it ?
what is the Graded potential ?
what is receptor potential ?
What is the difference between graded and action potential ?
if we increase the Intensity, will the ratio of action potential increase or will it decrease ?
Dr Cheema
see Physio books..
Professional (Annual)
what is dysmetria ? test to confirm it ?
Dr Cheema
see physio books.
Professional (Annual)
Can UREA enter the osmoreceptors ?
Dr Akram
Professional (Annual)
questions coming alongwith practicals

Bell’s Palsy
Babinski’s Sign
Vitamin A Deficiency
Temporal Summation and example
MRI \ LP \ EEG \ Angiography- principle , indication , contraindication.
Gamma Loop System and Clonus
Tetany , Tetanus , Tetanization.
Cold Calocic Test
Electroretinogram
Attenuation Reflex
Two point discrimination
Supraspinal of control of tone
Vestibulocular Reflex
Characterstics of LMN & UMN lesions
Mucsle Cramps
Three characterstics of NM Junctions
Myopia , Hypermetropia , Astigmatism
Night Blindness
Endurance type Athletes
Anosmia, Hyposmia, Dysosmia
Dr Akram
almost all are given in dr akram prac notebuk
Professional (Annual)
decerbrate rigidity
basal ganglia
what is the result of damage to basal ganglia
treatment of parkinsonism
what are rods n cones
what are otolith organs
whats the difference between diabeties mellitus n insipidus
pitutary hormones.name them.
target area of ACTH...which portion of adrenal?
aldosterone escape
what is photo transduction
what is succus entericus
what is taste blindness
what is hypermetropia, its cause?
what is motor homunculus?
what r the hormones released in duodenum
what increases gastric motility n what decreases it
testicular function tests
ovarian function tests
various hormone levels at various stages of ovarian n menustral cycle
how estrogen is formed in men
what is law of gut(pronounced by the examiner as LAUGH gut)
what is homenculus
what is agusia, in which condition can u not taste
periosmia, disosmia, hyperosmia
external QMC
see sir akram's buk
Professional (Annual)
justify that adrenl medulla ats as a ganglion
what is stress?
name the stressors
give the funcions of spinal cord?
how can we record the electrical rsponse in brain stem death
Sir Aram
no idea about the answer for the qestion about brain stem death recording...brain stem death should cause instat death...so no idea how sir wanted to measure it
Professional (Annual)
give the enzymes acting on bones
wat would happen it u cut the hypothalo hypopheseal tract
osteoprosis more common in males or females?
prof Akram

Professional (Annual)
most important reflex of body
whch system is most affected by aging
thyroglobulin in blood after thyriodectmy
At whch age ovary can be removed in a pregnant woman
Can thyroxin be meauserd in feotus
diff of presentation of addison disease in male & female
Types of satiety
Jacksonian epilepsy
if a mother does nt love her child where does d lesion in her brain lies
Cortical reaction
Tympanic reflex
Urinary centerz
types of hypermetropia
ovarian function test
Osteomalacia ^& osteoporosis
Paraplegia in extension & flexion
Incomplete section of spinal cord
what is brainstem?by whch electrophysiological tst do we diagnose brainstem death
what is EEG & its waves
somatomedin C
pitutary of gut & its hormones
Diff between somatic & autonomic reflex arc
pubertal goiter
why sodium conc rises in RBCs in hyperthyroidism
Dr Akram

Professional (Annual)
name d hormones acting on bones
clinical sign of hypocalcemia
wt z carpopedal spasm
effect of hypocalcemia on brain
Dr Akram

Professional (Annual)
gastrocolic reflex? its centre?
defaecation reflex,centre nd pathway?
anterior horn cell syndromes?
diffrence b/w complete n incomplete cord lesion? y?
wat is thyroglobulin?
normal levels in blood
wat causes raised levels?
wat is the reason for presence of thyroglobulin in blood post thyroidectomy?
conn's syndrome?
aldosterone escape?
infant hercules?
sir akram

Professional (Annual)
somnambulism?
narcolepsy?
cataplexy?
insomnia?
any state when the person is awake bt unaware?
mam farida

Professional (Annual)
.LADY SECRETARY ov brain?
2.hw wl he die afte hypothalamic ablation?? by temp nonregulation?
3.satiety centre functionz... i knw its to create satiety.. bt vot wud u say in a proper ans!!
4.thalamic n cerebellar homunculus just sensory?
5.where s Fe absorbd?
6.proper def ov SHAM FEEDING?
7.differenc btw ROMBERGH tst n sign?
8.Gastric func tsts?
9.diffrenc btw exophthalmos n proptosis?
10.evidence of da neuro transmitter ov inner hair cells?
11.types of obesity??? APPLE OBESITY n PEAR OBESITY..?? lol.. vots it?
12.electrical tst fr brain stm death? :(
13.possible role ov GH in causing aging????
14.neurotransmitter in basal ganglia?? dopamine n act choline?
15.LAW ov gut?
16.centrs ov urination.defecation.gastrocolic n ileocolic reflexs?
17.most imp body reflex?

viva question
pain
pathway of pain
olfactory pathway
why islam disallows women to use perfume in streets and bazar
transduction
pancreatic secretion control
postprandial alkaline tide
errors of refreaction
assosiation areas of brain


and from next student
postpradial acidic tide


umm sir akram askd:

csf production, blood brain barrier, substances that break da barrier, wat is a reflex, reflex arc, wat is da reflex arc of a conditiond reflex, bile salts, test 4 gall bladder funtion, solubility product def n value

ppl in da begining of da batch expect long vivaz n ur sketch copies 2 b opened n dat u'll prob giv da viva 2sir akram b4 da external cums n then u'll hav 2 wait till evry1 else is dun 2 giv da viva 2 her seperate :S.... and if u giv it 2 her seperate she wnt b payng any attention n wont giv u any time 2 answr b4 moving on 2 da next q

external askd just da visual pathway n then wat is speech?

other qz dat iv heard of:

pathways of pain, pcos, different fistulas, git reflexes eg gastrocolic


asked to draw
reflex arc, spinal gate theory, thalamu motor sensory n cerebellar homunculi,corticospinal tract, loops of basal ganglia esp parkinsonism n 7 neuron loop




questions by sir akrm
thyroid clearance rate,defecation reflex,syringomylia two point discriminatn,pregnancy test
external
neuroendocrin reflex,audition pathway,theories of color visin,mechanism of ction of steroid hormones,oxytocin,down regulation



in practical the externel asked me,related to perimetry,def of visual field,its clinical significanc(u r suposed to tell how it helps in brain tumors diagnosis)



Sir akram asked
what is alkaline tide?
draw it
when does it occur?
intention tremor
why parkinosonian tremors disappear in sleep?
what is reticular activating system?
external asked
how to study brain functions
difference btw coma and sleep

pract i had one from experimental and other of sensory system
tetanization....only sir akram took the pract viva today, external didnt come
he didnt ask anything related to tetanization and asked one question abt sensory system
what is two point discrimination.
Both are in usually pleasant mood...:)



Physio Viva : im the last one in batch.. as soon as i had written my roll no. and lifted my head WHAT TYPE OF LENSES YOU GOT IN YOUR SPECS !?
Jotted something down got up and asked what disorder does a neonate has .. (He gave options) myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism..

Sir Akram : I'm going for asar namaz .. aap yaheen rahein jab tak mein aata nahi hoon

Me : Yes SIR !

Sir Akram : I was talking to you, madam ! hahahahahaha..
(poooof he's gone)

Madam : Hypermetropia hota hai +2 D !

Then she asked astigmatism (Coz i had answered dat before) sleep disorders, nigrostriatal pathway function, datz it


the middle order people get the longest vivas and sketch book oriented
remove any sketch dat can spell trouble for you
last 3-4 ppl sketch books werent opened
in the middle after taking practical viva he asks practical oriented questions which might catch some ppl off-guard who hav viva on 1st day
Chapters : CNS should be perfectO! Overall mixed he hota hai
Starts at 11 and mine ended at 4pm !



Physio Practical :
Question1 : 2pt discrimination .
Test sensory functions
Question2 : Lumbar puncture indications and contra
Deep tendon reflexes ( Biceps,knee and ankle)

Questions Viva: i was among da lucky ones who got sir akram as the examiner

In which disorder Gamma discharge increases?
and alpha discharge ?

Where does the switch of these alpha/gamma lies ? I said cerebellum
Which part of cerebellum ? (siiiilence )

datz it

For practical the same questions are repeated
Regarding performing it Babar carried out all the frog executions
And we carried out our reflexes on the baba jee of da lab
Performance really doesnt matter and the observations are not even looked upon. But HE MIGHT ASK YOU TO PERFORM THE PRAC IN VIVA like he asked the guy before me to perform knee jerk . Do good in written and own da viva !



fisio viva...

sir akram askd :
wat r functions of hypothalamus???
how does temp. regulation occur??
in case of damage to antifall centre,wat ll happen??

extrnl qs r :
name sum heat loosing mechanisms??
hrmones of post. pituitary??
effect of ADH on vessels??
basal ganglia??
cognitive fnction cntrolled by wat??
role of putamen??

fisio practical
wat is Rinne's test??
wavelength of diff. colours??
bone cndction better or air???


papez circuit..it supports which theory..
theories of emotion...
hemiplegia and gait in it
stress gland
shortest harmone according to no of amino acids..



ir asked bell magendie principle,
jendrassik's manouvre,why pendular knee jerk in cerebellar disease??

Madam askd abt composition ov saliva nd hormones of GIT,function ov lysozyme
in practical she askd abt various tastes on tongue nd she didnt think dat corneal reflex occurs after blowing air on cornea....



sir asked from me
pinpoint pupilary constriction with hyperpyrexia site of lesion?
lesion of anti fall center
normal thyroglobulin levels in which disease they r elivated
imp of thyroglobulin lvl aftr thyroidectomy
aldosterone escape
y parkinsonian tremors disappear in sleep
normal blood glucose lvl
sham feeding
function of tsh
effect of tsh on colliod
mechanism of action how colloid is reduced
stien leventhal syndrome



sir akram ........1.give the experimental evidence dat anterior lobe ov cerebellum acts as a switch between alpha n gamma efferent systems..2.diff between classical and ischaemic decerebration........reason 4 increase ov alpha discharge in latter.....3.do alpha n gamma motor neurons hav some direct synapse in brain ..4.importance ov carbonic anhydrase


xtrnal........1.aques humour.2.glucoma3.where do the auditory pathways ov 2 sides cross each other.4.factors increasing hcl secretion










Sir Akram + External madam faria



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