-----------------Practicals -------<-- more -->-------
practical ka chil scene hespoting easy hoti hestaining ko step wise karo to achi ho jati heurine ya stool ki slide me jo nazar ae woh draw kar do bas.jo draw kia hoga viva bhi almost wahin se hoga.
Patho prac :
1) Stool examination.. Draw ova of worms (enterobius,ascaris,ancylo
viva questions were from parasito mostly : Hydatid disease, filariasis,
2) ZN Staining : (write principle, procedure, results) viva questions were about AFBs.. mycobacteria mostly, specimens collected, principle of ZN, procedure
Spotting is a piece of cheesecake.. just dont forget to overdo the stations.. there are 24 of them but 4 r xtra, some geniuses did them all ! and they got in trouble.. Also some geniuses got confused after seeing the swab ! its just that cotton-bud thingy u clean the earwaxx with in a fancy box.. and also see the innoculating loop and its use here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inoculation_loop
male external asked genes for MRSA..aaaall about kongo fever nd bunya viruses..pre-treatmnt for sputum..y not use more than 2% NaOH..LJ medium..
female ext: identify specimens, granuloma, difference b/w sarcoidosis n TB granuloma.. anthracosis, asbestosis nd complications, heart failure cells, nut-meg liver
mam samina: almost the whole chapter of inflammation from A to Z..types of inflammation, mediators, abscess, empyema..y acute progresses to chronic blah blah...apoptosis genes..free radical mediated injury..
sir munir: candida nd aaall about it..from infections to causes..also gave a scenario for antibiotic-use-provoked candidiasis..nd about taenia solium
i hate dat guy external......baba fooka rolled full bldoser on me....kehta H-PYLORI pe ek theory hai jis pe noble prize bhi mila hai...wo kya hai??....how to create microaerophilic atmosphere?..5-6 sawal to mjhe samajh hi nae aye...madman !!
pathology viva 20-12
mam samina: identified all the models. then on chronic inflammation (features etc), healing by 2ndary intention, granulation tissue, and some more typical qs
mam externals questions of the day : metaplasia, dysplasia, fatty necrosis,
sir munir : life cycles of ancylostoma duod, comparison endo n exotoxin, most potent exotoxin, sm more Qs
sir ext : milk bacteria, brucellosis, then some bacteria name i hadnt heard/read of , inclusion bodies examples
mam sameena :squmous cell carcinamoa ,any other carcinoma related to skin ,wat r oncovirauses ,pappiloma virus,where they r located on genitals ,where is squamous cell carcinoma in utrus mam external :cardiac failure cells ,malignant tumer sir ext :differntiate btw blood agar n chocklate agr ,for wat bacteria chocklte agr is used , wat r pathogenesis of meningiococcemia n menegitis .,, n sir muneer arghh ....he asked me abt physics ..wat is sound give its qualities ,types of microsvcope ,flourescnt microscope,uv lite ki wavelenght ,wat is a spore ,in microscope wat structures r seen of bcteria ,wat is MHC n wat it meant for ...
Patho 23/ 12
Lady External : Identify the specimens , ghons complex , complications of asbestosis? what is mesothelioma ? where is it found in the body ?
Ma'am Sameena: Identify the specimens, what does caseous granuloma look like ? embolism ? blood flow disturbances ?
Prof. Muneer : Some friendly chit chat , anaerobic bacteria , bacteria involved in gas gangrene other than c. perfrenges , leishmaniasis , its diagnosis , life cycle of ascaris , pseudomanas aerogenosa .
External guy : Contrary to popular belief , he is pleasant. He asks about culture media , biochemical tests , their compositions and results .why and what colour changes occur in TSI agar after 4 hrs and 24 hrs for salmonella and shigella .
arbo virus and their types .external baba pochta ha...agr mam samina office men na hon to...cled men electrolyte deficent kun hota hai..pcr...pigment used in imunofloricent assay...and external mam asked ..asbestos k complicatons and pneumoconiosis..and sir munir asked def of thrombosis and virchow triad....no micro no parasite...shyd last men hone ka faida hai...and best tchr ever in ke..mam samina...oncogenic virus...how granuloma is formed mechanism .gamma interferron is involved....and basics of imunity..mam can give u 18 out of 20
Ext aunty....tumour markers,fat necrosis,def of gangrene,oncogenes,catalas
e and coagulase test.........ext baba....bht tang krta hai...LJ medium,prerequisites for sputum collection,HBV antigens,4 bacteria causing TB,cholera toxin and MOA of it and specific name of stool............mam samina...best examiner iv seen in 3 yrs...models identify,russel bodies,pyknosis,tumour viruses,coagul necrosis microscopic appearance,igA kdr hota hai,which iG formed on 1st exposure........Sir munir....ecchinococcus life cycle,def and int host,any condition in our society where dogs eat sheep,do people have intimate contact with dogs in our country..baki sir chill mood me thay thori bht batain ki mere sat
External Female Examiner:
-- Identify models (basal cell carcinoma, tuberculous lymph node, left ventricular hypertrophy)
-- Ghon complexes
-- Tumor markers
External Male Examiner:
-- Identification of different growth media in petri dishes with bacterial growth (CLED, Chocolate Agar, McConkey's Agar)
-- Why is CLED used for Proteus?
-- What is the movement pattern for Proteus on CLED called?
-- What is empyema?
-- Diseases caused by Streptococci
-- What is impetigo?
-- What is a pyogenic infection?
-- What is meant by Type IV Hypersensitivity?
He asked a bunch of other really weird questions I was totally clueless about, like something about ''psychosis'' but spelled a different way, ESOT test (or something like that)
Internal Female Examiner:
-- Identify models (Tuberculous lymph node, cholecystitis with gall stone, lipoma, leiomyoma, acute appendicitis)
-- What is apoptosis?
-- Examples of apoptosis
-- Genes involved in apoptosis
-- Name some endogenous pigments
-- What is lipofuschin?
-- What is hemartoma? Where can it occur?
Internal Male Examiner:
He looked at my internal assessment card and saw that I was absent in one test. He asked me why and I told him because I had a flight the day before to America. He then spent like 25 minutes talking to me and one of the teachers about a trip he took to California and his brother who lives there and something about Beverly Hills and Santa Monica and a guy who asked him for a cigarette. And something about his travel agent who gave him a sweet deal on visas to America, Japan, and Korea before finally starting the viva!
-- Differences between exotoxin and endotoxin
-- Draw the egg of Eterobius Vermicularis
munir: life cycle of entamoeba...draw its cyst..enzmes n toxins of staphyl aureus
sameena: diff btw sarcoma n carcinoma..apoptots genes..russel body
ext aunty: gangrene..granuloma..diff btw tuberculoid n sarcoidosis ka granuloma..asbestosis
ext uncle: ghon complex..disinfectants..arboviruses..dangue virus
Munir: wat is a virus? Etc... Vibrio cholera, biochemicl tests idsamina: translocatns in neoplasms, oncogenic viruses in detail, teratoma, leiomyoma modlladyexternal: ghon complex, carcinoma in situ, tumor markrzguyexternal: pcr, autoclave, mrsa n all kinds of drug resistance, quelung reactin...Courtesy SARA ATIQ KHAN
Patho Ext baba g: ASOT (ASO titer) why it is done ?? what r normal values, rhuematic heart disease , M protein,........... mam ext: fat necrosis, complications of fractures.... identify gross spots present on the table, keloid, brown atriphy.... mam samina... complement sys.. its components ... necrosis etc
Mam extrnl: identify the spcmns, hypercholisterolaemia, its cause, granultatn tisue, granuloma, giant cells, tuberculosis, caseous necrosis, complicatns of asbestosis nd wound healng.
Mam samina : appendix, type of inf, cells in it, intracellular accumulatns, chemotaktik faktrs, opsonins, oncogenk viruses. Papiloma virus, oncogenes..
Sir munir : pathogenic fungi names, parasites causng disease in git, e.vermicularis cycle, egg... Bacillus anthracis complete.
Sir xtrnl: type 1 hs, oxidase test , autoclavng, test to kn4m autoklavng, urease test , h.pylori...
sir muni..cell wall inhibitors..resistance.... classification of vires..clostridium tetni its pathogenesis..tenia solium ..tenia saginata how it entr human body..undercooked food of beef in gawalmandi ...endotoxin exotoxcin diff... mam samina ..calcification types metastatic calcification causes in which organs it occur how wi u identify in histo...tb lung how wi u see in hist ,its diagram guy extrnl..cled its uses ..stone causing becteria ..vibro chlorae oncogenic virus mam extrnal.. granulation tissuse ..granuloma..cancer lab test tumor markers
sir munir: 1.u'v got food n stool specimens after a known staphylococcal (aerues) food poisoning outbreak during a PIA flight. All the stock was downloaded!how can u establish the cause as enterotoxigenic outbreak (WITHOUT USING CULTURE CYTOTOXICITY AND MOUSE PROTECTION TESTS!)
2.tell everything u knw about immunity!
mam samina: carcinoma, sarcoma, peu'd orange , rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma,........inflammation, pigments,......mutations......filariasis, elephentiasis,.........
MAM EXT.: most common infectious disease in pak.granuloma diagnosis of cancer in kemu lab tumor markers name in various conditions nd spotting familial hypercholestremiaMAM SEMINA..cells in chronic inflemation flariasis chronic cholycystits wala modelgranulatous tissue proud flesh sir ext: mackonky agar spottind name lactose fermenter.. dif , between e.coli nd klebsiela capsule flagella etc procedure of indole test herpes labalis disease by herpes simplex onchogenic viruses..neme .... SIR MUNIR: define immunity cells is it gud or bad cd8 cells hoe they kill how antibodies kills ...................... plz read granuloma nd graulomatus tissue very well......
ext madam: what that on ur neck? -.- its pigment, disease caused by its congenital def, by its acquired def, perssian blue stain, fatty liver causes, specimen id, granulation tissue, ulcer, etc etcmadam Samina: teratoma, diff between sarcoma and carcinoma, their example, then she asked me alot of immunity since i didnt do well in neo :p, types of lymp, Nk cells, appearance, functions of B, TH, CTL, first antibody formed, etc etc etc and it ended with... which cells are infected by HIVext sir: vibro cholera mechnism, h. pylori diseases, its culturing, how u achieve 5% oxygen in microaerophilic media, types of IgG, places where IgA is producedSir Muneer: 7 min on my background and a lecture on the new generations' attitude :p, diff between exo and endo toxins, told me to start describing anthacis, its culturing, granulosus, how many proglottids it has, cons of rupturing hydatid cyst
sir external was also asking KOCK'S PHENOMENA...its a test to differentiate between primary n secondary tuberculosis...in this test we inject subcutaneously tuberculosis antigen in guinea pigs..IN PRIMARY Tb...there is nodule formation after 2 weeks at inoculation site.which later becomes ulcer n which does not healn it affects the lymph nodes too..IN SECONDARY TB...there is rapid necrosis of skin n ulcer formation the ulcer heals n the lymph nodes are not affected...this is all wat i remeber.. for deatails consult shamim:P
mam external...repeated questions..nutmeg liver,dysplasia n upto which level sir external...lowenstein jensen medium,wats its purpose can we grow other mycobacteria on it or not,wat is mycobaterium leprae,wat it causes, how we culture it,why we culture it on foot pads,how long it takes to culture,wat r diff types of leprosy,in which tuberclin test becomes positive.wat is the diff between granuloma of tuberculosis n leprosy, where r epitheloid cells found(central middle or peripheral region),wat is HIV wat r its vaccines n in which ppl we give it,HCV lab diagnosis,wat is elisa its principle name of enzyme n name of substrate
mam samina..identify the specimen,in which inflmmmation u remove appendix.wat is hypersensitivity2,wat is adcc,wat r NK cells,how will u differentiate them on microscopy,wat r russel bodies,which antibody appear first?
sir munir...define immune system,wat r its effectors,wat is the immune related function of macrophages...how many classes of antibodies,IgA whwther univalent or bivalent,which peptide joins it,which bacteria act on it(then later he said ke pata nhi kertay hain nhi kertay chalo choro...so anyone can check it which bacteria act on J-chain),which bacteria produce peptidase?.wat infections are caused by hemophilus infleunzae, then he gave a scenario...""aik bacha hai jo matti men khelta hai thoray din ke baad bemar ho gya..us ko bhari pan honay laga anaemia ho gya us ki man usay hospital ley ker gyi...to pata chal ke usay thoray din pehlay paon men kharish bhi hoi thi""usay kon sa infection hoa ho ga??...Ancylostoma duodenale...how it cause anemia how much blood it sucks..0.1ml/day/worm
Mam samina:appendicitis,type of cell in it,chemotactic fctrz,cmplement,opsonization,name sum opsonins,hemosidrosis,its color,endogenous pigments,intracellulr accumulations,intracellulr protein accumulatn,heart failure cells,hemosidrosis apparent in whch organ,reticuloendothelial system,iron storage form,types of chemokines,cytokines,effects of TNF nd its types...
Mam extrnal:granuloma,name of giant cell in caseous necrosis,diff btw sarcoidosis nd t.b granulomas,free radicals mediated injury,antioxidants,gangrenous necrosis,carcinoma in situ,familial hypercholestorlemia...Sir extranl:cled agar,its cmposition,type of indicatr in it,lactse nd non lactose frmentrz,MacCnkys agar,color of colonies..
Sir munir:cell wall syn inhbtrs,types of media,selective n differncial in detail,stap aureus enzymes nd toxins,bordetella pertusiss,upper resp tract infctns by pneumococci,ecchinocooc life cycle nd diagnosis,where hydatid cyst is frmd mstly..
some questions of external guy....he is crazy about Arboviruses n Bunyaviruses..AIDS definition according WHO.. australia antigen...tyndallization..intermediate sterlization..phenol coefficient..pretreatment of the sputum for TB..genes involved in MRSA..VISA..VRSA..cultures n their composition n significance of each component..NDMB....... new delhi metallo B lactamase..... IMViC... its a mixture stated abve..... taq polymerase...... heat resistant polymerase usd in PCR......
$Sir Munir...... necrosis nd types,h influenzae, salmonella typhi,bacillus anthrax,$Mam sameena....chronic inflammation,plasma cells,types of lymphocytes,oncogenic viruses,thrombo embolic phenomenon,metaplasia,barrots eso,fat embolism,antibodies detail,carcinoma nd sarcoma$Male External....hep B diagnosis,septic shock,oxidase test,lactose fermentors,functions of interluekins,NDMB,IMViC(indole,methyl red,vogus,citrate),taq polymerase,herpes virus in detail,indole test,quelling reaction,$Female External.......familial hypercholesterolemia,nutmeg liver,heart failure cells,persian blue dye,granuloma,ghon complex.......(me and khalid nawaz bajwa)
Patho viva Qs. almost the same as mentioned earlier.the external was asking Nocardia, actinomycetes.ma'am sameena: thromboembolism.
sir munir:spore forming bacteria,staphylococcus aureus,sterlization,autoclave,difference b/w endo n exotoxins
external sir:tumor markers kongo virus,bacterial resistance,genes for resistance,identification of syphilis,surface antigen.hepatitis b markers
external mam: granuloma,types of necrosis,epitheloid cells,types of immunity,example of 3rd,ghon complex
external sir asked about australian dye, croup, HSV,syphilis, VDRL, RPR, congo virus, anti -resistance genes.he may also ask some simple questions like difference b/w gram +ve and -ve cell wall
from mam external also expect questions from gentics topics like marfan syndrome, ehlers-danlos synd, phenylketonuria, micro RNA
sir munir.. name the spore forming bacteria? which organism is known 2 have the most resistant sporeS? pseudomembranous colitis each and every thing about it.. exotoxins n enzymes of staph aureus.. how will u diagnose a case of staph aureus food poisoning using only the food sample? draw the gametocyte of plasmodium falciparum.. parasito eggs r important..
mam samina.. difference between autolysis and heterolysis.. types of t cells.. inherited defect involving neutrophil dysfunction? ( chronic granulomatous disease).. all the oncogenic viruses.. opportunistic infections.. how does inflmmation cause tissue injury? malignanacies due to human papiloma virus? regurgitation during feeding... anaphylotoxins.. opsonins.. histological changes in anaphylaxis.. causes of edema..types of inflammation.. radical mediated injury..
the madman.. all the arboviruses.. rift valley virus.. PCR.. new delhi metallo beta lactamase.. define mutation.. its types.. examples of spontaneous mutations.. antigenic shift and drift.. influenze virus in detail..transduction and conjugation.. types of immunoflouresence.. examples of point mutations.. dengue.. bunnya viruses..what does CLED stand for?
mam external.. anthracosis lung. asbestosis and its complications. genetic basis of hyperlipidemia. heart failure cells. granuloma. difference in granuloma of tb and sarcoidosis..causes of fatty liver.. alpha fetoproteins.. all the tumor markers.. lab diagnosis of cancer.. local hemosiderosis with examples. ghons complex.. was repeating questions...
gt of m.tuberculosis
gt of e.coli
whole process fr antibiogram
types of culture media
mcconkey media in detail
antibiotic related bacterial infection
antibiotic related fungal infection
last question................... you have 4 minutes your time start now speak as much as you can on imune system
causes of fatty liver
factors affecting wound healing
ehler danlos syndrome
factors released by macrophages
aur bhe kuch test pochae thae jin ke name bhe yad nae
my viva questions
sir munir: ankylostoma dudenale(everythng about it) larva,strep pyogenes classification,ascaris other round worms name them
mam samina: thrombus,embolus,types,necrosis n its types, fatty necrosis,hypercoagguble states,anti coags in body.
lady external: asbestosis,anthracosis,brown atrophyof heart,hemartoma, carcinoma insitu,
guy external: pcr,toxic shock syndrome, polio virus,tetanospasmin mode of action,trachoma,toxin n endotoxin differences.
sir munir sterilization of laproscope(glutaryldehyde),diff. between endo & exo toxin,Rabies virus
mam samina types of inflammation,fibrinoid,endogenious pigments,how will u detect haemosisrosis,causes of haemosidrosis,
mam external repetition mostly ghon complex define granuloma diff between tb and sarcadosis granuloma models 5 or 6 tumor markers
sir external full time lethal def of HIV acc to WHO ,lowenstein jensen medium morphology of colonies of M.tuberculosis in it mac A gene etc
Patho mei 2 xtrnal ayi thin.do internal thay ,sir munir and mam samina.ek xtrnal nay prac ka viva lia, basical bacterio nd parasito thori bot.dosri xtrnal nay model relatd general patho ka viva. Mam samina nay model sy relatd general patho viva.sir munir eggs bohat bnwa rhay hain,salmonela,treponema,haemophilus,gram postve saray,gram neg cocci,e coli,Virus ki def, thora sa knwldge ho HIV and hepatitis virus ka.bs.
--Patho msg 5 :Slides ki spotting mei do do identification points likhnay hain.but these r nt must.u write to be on safe side just.Agar k sath identification point pta nahi kya hoga,so u may write just its use in brackets .its enufWid instruments ,just write use in bracket ,no id point..Agar saray atay hain almost.Agr ek sheeshi mei ferozi sa medium ho to woh lowenstein jenson medium hai >used for TB confirmation.yeh pics mei na tha.
--Patho msg 4 :Instruments in patho spotting may be ESR tube. .lambi si glassy pipette ho gi.SWAB . .us tarah ka jo ear saaf krnay wali cotton hoti hai jo:pEk slide pari ho agar dabay nanhay nanhay to woh HAEMOCYTOMeter hai. .to count blood cell.And INOCULATING LOOP. .jis mei wire loop k sath handle lga hoga. .is sy sample ko culture medium per ya slide per lgatay hain.
--Sir munir asks sterilization.Eggs of (shistostoma, taenia saginata,solium, echinococus ka brood capsule wali diagram, diphylobothrium eggs, ascaris ,ancylostoma and pinworm eggs, and microfilaria ki diagram of bancrofti ) . .he may ask u abt virus definition, a lil v lil abt HIV and Hepatits virus, ,and shuru walay logo sy hemophilus influenza bacterium, or bordetela.his fav bacteria were staphylococus,streptococus,treponema, mycobacteria,e coli,salmonela,shigela, neisseriae,, . . . .
--in total there were 2 extrenals and 2 internals,,mam samina and sir munir.One viva of prac by xternal.Then viva by other extrenal ,she asks from models basicaly ,neoplasia basics,immunity basics and inflammation.Mam samina alSo got models,she asks frm general patho. .basic thngs . .but inflammation and neoplasia u shld ve gud ideas and readng.inflamation sara. .and neoplasia mei malignant benign,and carcinogens thoray bot,and alpha fetoprotein,and paraneoplastic syndrome.but viva starts frm sum model.
--First u go to lab at 9 AM.U have to do 20spottings. Jin mei models and agars and instruments and slides hongi.these carry 30 marks.Then, ,all of u in lab wil be given either gram stain or ZN stain. U ve to write procedure first in 5min. Then stain the slide. .they hardly see what u stained. 10 marksThen, either urine or stool sample slide will be gven, ,u ve to observe this and just draw what u seen.10 marks.Then copy 5 marks.Then prac viva by external it is 20 marks i think. .then
--Patho prac mei.20spotngs hain 30 marks ki, jin mei model ho sktay hain (ESR tube, swab , innoculatng wire, haemocytometer)Lowenstein jenson medium b a rha hai,ferozi rang ka medium hota hai sheeshi mei.Phr puri lab nay gram stain ya ZN stain ka procedure likhna hota hai ,sb ko ek hi ata hai in mei sy koi. .phr perfom .mager daikhta koi nai,yeh ten mark total.Phr stool ya urine sample ki slide milti hai bani bnain,jo nazer aye woh bnao bs. 10 mark.phr vivay
organisma causing meningitis,functions of staph aureus,toxic shock syndrome toxin,trichomanos vaginalis..