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Pharmacology Viva and Practical Questions Prof 2010 King Edward Medical University


---------------------------------------PRACTICALS-----
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Practical Pattern
Know how to prepare 2000 mL of dextrose saline (not in copy)
Do the rabbit's eye drugs table really well
the qs we got with it was
a table was given
they asked which drug could it be and give reasons for your choice, we got homatropine
Just read these practicals really well:
1 effect of
unknown drugs on frog's heart
2. rabit's ileum wala.
3. rabits eye. learn the light reflex pathway n cornel conjuntival reflx pthways
Yamima Bashir effect of drugs on frog's CNS too
Sample Prescription
Dr. Wantstopass Practical
Third Year M.B.B.S.
Your Address
Date
Patient Name
Age
Sex
Address
Diagnosis e.g. hypertension
Rx
Medication Name and Dosage
Your Signature
PMDC # (Exam Roll No.)
1.Nigella sativa
active principle(a.p)thymoquinone n use as antidermatophyte,antibacte
rial n antitumor.
2.cardamom large
a.p is volatile oil n use as carminative
3.coriandor
...a.p is volatile oil n use as carminative n purgative
4.fennel
a.p is volatile oil(anethole) n use as carminative,antioxidnt n indigestion
5.cloves
a.p is volatile oil n use as carminative
6.poppy
a.p is alkaloid(papaverine) n use as analgesic
7.senna leaves
a.p is hydroxy anthracene n us as purgative
8.cyminum
a.p is vnlatile oil n use as antimicrobial
9.glycerhiza.
A.p is glycyrhizin n use as expectorant, diarrhea n carminative
10.peppermint
a.p is volatile oil n use as carminative
11.NH4CL
use as expectornt n diuretic
12.NaHCO3
use as carminative
13.NaCL
as normal saline 4 dehydration
14.aspirin
use as analgesic,antipyretic n anti inflamatry
15.CuSO4
use as fungicide n pesticide
16.I2 soln
in graves disease n skin disinfection
17.KMnO4
Use as disinfctant n antiseptic
18.tincture card.cmp
as carminative
19.nux vomica
a.p is alkaloid(strychnine) n use as stimulant ov git. And Nux vomica is stimulant of sp cord.used for barbiturate poisoning
20.castor oil
a.p is fixed oil n use as purgative.
Summary of uses
**Carminatives
Cardamom large
Corriander
Fennel
Cloves
Glcerrhiza
Peppermint
NaHCO3
Tincture Card
**Purgatives
Corriander
Senna leaves
Nux Vomica
Castor oil
**Expectorants
Glycerrhiza
NH4Cl
**Analgesics
Poppy
Aspirin
**Antimicrobial (related)
Nigella sativa
Cymium cumin
CuSO4
I2 Solution
KMnO4
for PHARMA PRAC !! *general info*55 marks TOTAL = 5 copy + 8 tables 4 marks each + 3 vivas 6 marks each !!Dont study 1st copy except the 7 calculations + the cardamom that they didnt make us write = 8 calculations learn by heart !
Table 1+2= 2 calculations from copy 1
All vivas are from 2nd copy = DO IT WELL !
Table 3= 2 of those models (seeds vagera around 20 in total DO LEARN ALL with active principles whichever ones have+ uses)
Table 4= 2 definitions from biostatistics chapter e.g. deviation, mean, medianwith a calculation THE MAKING OF TABLE with your own 6 values! calculators allowed but be fast some may learn and go!
Table 5= CNS stimulants caffeine, picrotoxin, strychnine vala know it by HEART with the inferences e.g. cutting b/w eye and tympanic if convulsions disappear = cortex vali etc.
Table 5 i meant un theeno drugs KY MAKING OF TABEL
Table 6= EYE practical on rabbit vali 4 drugs jo hai = atropine, pilocarpine, adrenaline, cocaine know THEIR ACTIONS ON ALL REFLEXES since a printed table is there in front of you with columns with headings light refles/corneal etc. neeche plus minus laga hota hai as in present absent, IDENTIFY DRUG plus mention receptors in eye with actions by stimulating them!
Table 7= 1 prescription!
Table 8= a clinical Q e.g. DM ke symptoms diye hote hain, have to diagnose the disease mention drug used its ROA and AE!
SO THATS OVER FOR THE Qs !!!
1 viva related to frog e.g. heart has a graph their with 4 labelled readings 1,2,3,4 he may ask whats this prac called? effect of unknown etc. and explain procedure, or see reading etc.
1 viva related to rabbits ileum know everything about it, apparatus, PRECAUTIONS, concentrations and quantity of solutions used, dose response curves that you get, sigmoid their uses etc.
1 viva related to frogs eye light reflex do Q can be anything about receptors, pathway other conditions causing dilated pupil DONT FORGET YOUR TOXI POISONS !
SO I GUESS THATS THE MOST I COULD GIVE !!
6th december pharma practical
12 tables 1 resting
4 min 4 each table
teachers with viva on 3 tables
calculations of carminative n KMnO4 n directions for use
identification of sodium bicarb n aspirin powder active principle n clinical question
clinical scenario of boy with DM type 2 drug of choice route of administration and side effect
table of drugs instilled in eye, identify with reason
unknown convulsant table
standard error
prescription of acute pulmonary oedema
sir fawad with rabit eye, viva abt consensual eye reflex, conditions with miosis mydriasis n perform conjunctival reflex
other sire with frog heart unknow drug, identify from kymograph n give scheme..
madam rubina scary with ilium dose response apparatus..asks abt apparatus, dose response curves their significance
thats all i remember
Cardomom means carminative mixture.
Directions for use for each calculation.
2 uses of each specimen given to identify.
Frog's Ringer's soln and Tyroid's soln compositions for viva.
In experimental no need to prepare 2nd practical (frog's heart) and the one of rectus abdominis.
Unknown drug full SCHEME for viva.
Whenever Dr.Fawad is on unknown drug viva he asks about drugs causing bradycardia and tachycardia other than ANS drugs.
For rabbit's eye he also asks about light reflex pathway, how to check conjunctival reflex, precautions etc.
They r nt changing the bottels of samples,thats another way of identifying them;)NH4cl is dirty enough to stand out clearly,NaCl longer crystals wd sharp edges,aspirin=rounded glistening crystals in longer bottels(that helps coz pinkish tinge is difficult to appreciate wen its the only salt present there wd no other salt to compare wd),bicarb=luks like talc powder. . . . . . .red sol. R also confusing so phenol=turbid appearnce,not clear enough to luk through,tinc cardimom large=very clear red sol.,kmno4=shake the bottel it leaves purplish tinge on glass.
aspirin is kind of pinkish... sodium bicarb is a total powder (no crystals)... nacl and amm clorid luk similar... but amm clorid crystals giv a dirty/yellowish appearance wen compard to nacl
‎23/12......prescription ov essential hypertnsn....drugs ov peptic ulcer......kmno4 n tincture cardemam n their use.......biostat calculation.....5 percnt dextrose saline calculation...atropine dephenoxylate powdr calculation
hypertension ki treatment, peptic ulcer ki, diabetes ki.....
cns stimulants table is a must! And they gave u this table and ask u which drug caused tht stuff on the eye...and i think they ask for the receptors in the eye or smthin tht cause miosis/mydriasis...b.p 6 values standard dev, tincture cardmom and uses....
aspirin and NaCl uses. pilocarpine-the drug to identify from the table. phakki himself inevitably gets confused and ruins your viva, fawad is impossible to please and daarhi walay sir asks the neural pathways for corneal and light reflexes (just when u thought anatomy was over!)
atropine diphenoxylate powder, 3 doses of carminative mixture, Rx of peptic ulcer, prescription for essential HTN, justfication for strychnine
type 1; dietary management+insulin (short+intermediate) and pramlintide
type 2: wieght reduction+dietary control+monotherapy preferably with metformin+insulin or insulin secretagogues
-------------------------VIVAS-------------------------------------
PHARMA VIVA
Pharma viva questions:
External: diff b.w plasma half life and biological half life, acetazolamide uses, glaucoma drugs, gouty arthritis treatment, pilocarpine uses, he even asked about the apc powder!
Internal:plasma half life and significance, volume of distribution and significance, mondays disease, cheese *smthin* disease, b1 agonists, dopamine agonists, levodopa uses, physostigmine, neostigmine, atropine antidote, muscarine blockers, uses of dopamine agonists, hypertensive crisis
phaRma : external: If i give u a syringe containing insulin, what will u do if u want its actions to last for a) 2 to 3 hrs? b) 2 to 3 mins ? .....do we actually use atropine fr opthalmic procedures? Wat derivative of atropine do we use instead?.... Which beta blocker is used fr glaucoma n why?
external: agar insulin ka duration of action lambaa (at least 2-3hrs) karna ho tou kia krein ge? only wen i said subcutaneously, he was satisfied.. He also said : 'mai aap se regular insulin ka puch raha hu.. Hum clinics mai dete hee regular insulin hain.. aur koi nai detey.. aur subcutaneusly dete hain.. aur agar iv deinge tou the action will last for 2to3 mins only..' these are his very own words...
PHARMA VIVA 22nd
sir zahid
benzodizapines MOA, Actions, antagonist.
atropine toxicity.
morphine's effects.
CVS drugs used in CCF, moa of digoxin,
chemo drugs. moa of alkylating agents.
uses of Amantedine
Aspirin n its doses.. acetamenophen k actions.
Antacids classification, moa of PPI, their AE.
EXT. atropine antagonist, why is neostigmine not used instead of physostigmine
drug dependence, phenobarbital uses, SSRI n TCA which of these have more ae &why
23 dec what are biogenic amines.... state complications due to there deficirncies.... parkinson disease... treatment... macrolides...up regulation of receptors ... down regulation ... gie examples.... spare receptors.... !! TCAs ... milk alkali syndrome...
int: mucosal protectv agents..classify antacids..moa of aminoglycosides..def of bioavailability
ext: first pass metabolsm..enteric coating..sweet coating..stimulant effects of opioids..hw opioids cause miosis n emesis.. opioid antagnst.
my viva quezz----(sir zahid)wat is plasma half lyf,its significance,classify antinicotinic drugs,give clinical uses of trimetaphaan.(external)name any drug which isnt a sialagouge and is used in parkinsonz,f v use carbdopa with levodopa,wat will be its effect on the dose of levodopa?/,y do v use carbidopa?wat r clinical uses of atropine?will v use it 2 visualize the retina and optic disc??(izzah vasim)
external:what is drug?how drugs are used in the prevension of diseases?why SSRI are more beneficial than TCA?what are IV general anesthetics?y propafanol is preferred?treatment of severe pain i.e morphine..and treatment of morphine toxicity?i.e naloxone
sir zahid:names of bronchodialators
sir Zahid says he will ask easy questions from now on!treatment of digoxin toxicity digibind's name?FABclassify anti aryhthmicsy do we use b blockers as anti arrythmics?y do we use calcium blockers?name ca blockers? their indication?anti histamines?uses of prostaglandins?
external!define pharmacology? he told me it is study of drug-body interaction. simple and concise.quetions on linear kinetics and non-linear kinetics.aspirin -->clinical use? what dosage is indicated for gout? y not low dosage is indicated? how does it cause hyperuricemia in low dose?y do we alkalinize urine in aspirin overdose?
neuroleptics classification, antithyroids classification, carbamazapine clinical use, serotonin storm, cheese storm,
hoffman's elimination? (atracurium's spontaneous metabolism)
other questions: how to diff between opiod poisionng and pontine hemorrhage?barbiturate poisoning treatment?how does acetazolamide treat acute mountain sickness?compare aspirin and acetaminophen?volume of distribution?
NS receptors.-->lipolysis b3 and lipolysis inhibited a2 , anticancer classification, external-->define mutagenicty teratogenicity etc, reye's syndrome
Pharmacology viva questions : what is drug? receptors? bioavailability , volume of distributin , drug interactions , loading dose , maintainance dose , ATROPINE, beta blockers uses n contra indications , ECOTHIOPHATE, BPH treatment , uses of alpha blockers , ACE INHIBITORS , MONDAY'S DISEASE, BENZODIZAPINES, TETRACYCLINES, AMINOGLYCOSIDES, inverse agonist , name inverse agonist of benzodizapines, gold compounds , drugs in status asthmaticus , MORPHINE, anticonvulents , anti psychotics, redistribution of thippental , purple toe , WARFARIN , anesthetic for spinal anesthesia, anesthetic plus adrenaline is not given in what part of the body ? ( the distal part of extremeties because of chance of gangrene ) PDE INHIBITORS, drug regimen for prostatic cancer , HYPOGLYCEMICS , HYPOGLYCEMICS, HYOPOGLYCEMICS ... and again HYPOGLYCEMICS
pharmacology viva SIR ZAHID:ca channel blockers,their uses,use of nimodipine to treat subarachnoid hemorrhage,ace inhibitors,their moa,arbs,antinicotinic drugs,uses of ganglion blockers(imp use during neurosurgery),suxamethonium,clinical uses,adverse effects,y does apnea occur?due 2 def ov pseudocholinesterase in sum ppl,def of pharmacogenetics,benzodiazepines,moa EXTERNAL definition ov half life,its significance,antiparkinson drugs,drugs used 4 petit mal seizures,uses of alpha channel blockers!yesterday he had d int assessment register opened in front and used 2 ask some ppl bout d tests lyk he asked me y z there a red line underneath dis test!!!!
7th december viva
sir zahid asked def of drug, recepto, biotransformation n detail, partial agonist, classification of tetracycline, use of demeclocycline, side effects of demeclocycline, MOA of omeprazole in detail, anabolic steroids names n clinical uses, corticosteroids in detail, contraceptives, mucoprotective agents,....all i remeber also insulin uses, anti histamines n receptors antidiabetic clasification
external asked volume of distribution definition, formula explanation loading dose maintainance dose formula, example of loading dose, beta blockers drug intactions, contraindications, drugs in CCF, alpha beta blockers, uses of atropine n uses ov adrenaline n role in infiltration anaesthesia,half life n its significance,ach y nt used clinically n treatmnt ov absence seizure n status epilepticus
PHARMA VIVA
Moa n adverse efects ov tetracyclines
dif b/w tolerance n tachyphylaxis
superinfection def n example
beta agonists
anti histamines _ names
pheochromocytoma n heart failure treatment
ace inhibitors uses
prokinetic drugs names
-------------------------------From tsdocs-------------------------------
External quesDrugs given by sublingual routeWhat is oxycitocin where produced n use What is adh function n siteDesmopressinTreatment of hepatitis c Interferon how work n produced side effect What are immune potentiaotor Internal ques What is structure activity relationship What r cholinergic anatgonust Methyl dopa mode of action Treatment of glaucoma Function of InsulinUses of acetazolamide
--Total 10 specimens Sulphur powderAspirinSodium bicarbonate powderNux vomica seedsPoppy plantTin. Cardamom liquidCardamom largeNigella sativaGlycerhizaSanna leaves
--External quesDrugs given by sublingual routeWhat is oxycitocin where produced n use What is adh function n siteDesmopressinTreatment of hepatitis c Interferon how work n produced side effect What are immune potentiaotor Internal ques What is structure activity relationship What r cholinergic anatgonust Methyl dopa mode of action Treatment of glaucoma Function of InsulinUses of acetazolamide
--Extrnal, treatmnt for ulcerative colitis, salmonela inf, topical sulfa drug, other antibiotics for burns, dif bw erythro n clarithro, indicatns of insulin, morphine trigers whch centres.side efcts of insulin.D antagonists, neurolept anaesthesia.Internal, synergism, ccf drugs, uses of ace inhbts,uses of alpha 2 antagonsts, insulin secretagouges,side effects of biguanides,uses of cholinomimetics
--Pharma Viva iz easy..jus do gen.pharma,cvs,chemo n endo!most ques 4m it..int n xtrnl both repeat ques so keep askin whoevr cumz out..mam askd bioavailability..first pas metabolism..subcutaneous route n whic drugz by diz route..whtz givn in diabetic pregnancy?secretagoguez name?cotrimaxozole?adverse efct n advantage?advantage ov subcutaneous route?dopamine antagonist-antipsychotix..h2 recptor antagonist..difrnce btw cimetidine n ranidine..internal askd beta n alpha agonist..isoprenaline n dobutamine use..digoxin use in failing heart n efct on heart size..treatment ov digoxin..volume ov dist n factrz efcting it..doxycyline..hepatic metabolism.gud luk!
--Drugs aplied thru nose(nasal decongestant), codeine,cocaine,its diagnsis,anti tusives,drugs causing adiction,nasal septm perforation wth whch drug(cocaine), drugs that cause vasodilation,their adv efects,she asks thngs in detail.these wer ques of extrnl.for intrnl prepare ans,cvs n gen pharma thoroughly.he asks easy questions.
--..Sulphur powder (It is a yellow powder.used as ointment in scabies),Nux vomica, cardamom large, senna leaves, aspirin powder<more crystalline shinier white powder>, NaHCO3(soft looking white powder>, glychyrrhiza(demulcent, used in cough), tincture cardamom(red liquid), nigella sativa Name beta agonists gabapentin uses spironolactn epinephrin uses drugs gven as supositories subcutaneous route
--2 table pe preprations thi wo liniments carminatives wali.1 prescrptn1 pbq1 pe bottles1 pe biostat1 pe picrotoxin wala1 pe table aya tha eye receptr kan 3 pe sir.11 total
--Specimens shown by sir fawad...Sulphur powder (used as ointment in scabies,eczymoses othr skin probs)Nux vomica(laxative.sp.cord stimulnt)cardamom largesenna leaves(anticonstipatv na)aspirin powder,anlgesic antiinflamatry anti pyrexiaNaHCO3 (antacid n alkalinizatn ov urine)glychyrriza(demulcent, used in cough),tincture cardamom(red to pink liquid),used as carminative.flatulnce dyspepsia etc.nigella sativa.anti hyperlipdemic,usd to reduce weight. N in alopecia.Aspirin n NaHCO3 dono white powdr hote han.bt aspirn crystline ha n dusra amorphous ha.
--ext ques,name diuretcs,iv anaesthetcs,clincl use acetazolamid,NAHCO3 USES,uses of glucagon,soluble insulin,contra ind of corticosteroid,bnzo diazpn poisng,its antagonist,antihelmintics,side efcts achi trha karen.sir zahid gnrl pharma,agonists n antagonist of alpha beta rcptrs,0xygn therapy,uses trimethaphan,S/E KETAMINE.ROA OF AMINOGLYCOSD,BARBTURT POISNNG.
--Jo xternal ha na.wo ak qstn puchti ha contraindicatn ov corticostrdz. Ye ak kar lena. Or spinal ansthesia k sideaffcts. baqi to bande ne buk fit parhi ho to ho jata ha. Ak she askd k morphine ka stimulatry effct kis recptr pe hota ha. Like pain euphoria etc. cough reflex .
--Pattern for pharm practical11 tables each having 5 marks an 4 min for each table2 major viva of 40 marks each
--Yr extrnl hve cns chemo.Morphine opioids anticonvulsants anxiolytics,antibiotics puchti he.Zahid is quite chill.Only asks basics
--Sulphur..usd 4 scabies,nux vomica actv prnciple strychnine brucine..usd as cns stimulnt in barbiturates/benzodia poisning,cardamom large..a.p volatile oil,usd as stomachic,apetizer.popy..a.p opium n morphine,usd as analgesc,nahco3 antacid
--Yr extrnl hve cns chemo.Morphine opioids anticonvulsants anxiolytics,antibiotics puchti he.Zahid is quite chill.Only asks basics
--Tbl1 atrpne diphexylate powdr 4 6 doses nd drction of use Tbl 2 sulphr ointment bp frmula nd clculte 4 20gm slphr nd drctn of use Tbl3 prescrptn of ccf tbl4 clincl prophylaxis of asthma wd route Tbl5 sena leaveas nd 2 uses nd tnctr cardmum nd uses Tbl6 dfn stndrd eror nd mode gv frmula of sndrd eror nd calclte stndrd eror of wt n kg of any 6 obsrvatn Tbl7 pilocrpine ka tble bna hua tha idntfy krna tha k ks ka tble nd d hue obsrvatn ko explain krna tha Tbl 8 draw tbl of cnvlsion of frg cns nd prove dat picrotoxin acts on mdula Tbl 9 sir fawad rbt ilium Tbl 10 sir thy wd frg hrt nd unknw drg ke scheme poch rh th Tbl 11 sir wd rbit eye tbl12 restng tbl
--Sir fawad Dfn dose rspns curve nd its typs Dfn nrml f dstributn curve Dfn eficacy nd potncy sgmoid curve k advntagz rbt ileum k aparats k parts k name pochy
--Active principlesNux vomica strychninesenna leaves. Emodieneglychyrriza. Glychyrrizinetincture cardamom. Iska apko pta krna pare ga nigella sativa. Nigellone. get it cnfrmd.waise nigellone b thek ha.
--carminatv mixture.apc powdr ki prep, pulmry odema ki prescrp, SE ke def,table,formula. Drugs on cns ka table n hw cm 2 knw sp crd k levl pe cnvulsns, prophylaxis of asthma ki drugs, aspirn n senna leave 4 id n their uses..
--Prfrmnc waln pa to srs qstn kr rha tha,wo koe fixd nae kbi koe sr hotay hn kbe koe...baqi t value,tinc cardmom,sulphr powdr,deir uses,carminatv mixtr ke calculatn,atropin diphenoxylate ke calculatn,pbq mn antihyprtnsv drgs k nam,eye wala aik tabl bna hoa tha n v hv to gues k knsi drug ha,cns pa drug actn ka tabl n prove dat drug acts on crebral cortx
--Prfrmnc waln pa to srs qstn kr rha tha,wo koe fixd nae kbi koe sr hotay hn kbe koe...baqi t value,tinc cardmom,sulphr powdr,deir uses,carminatv mixtr ke calculatn,atropin diphenoxylate ke calculatn,pbq mn antihyprtnsv drgs k nam,eye wala aik tabl bna hoa tha n v hv to gues k knsi drug ha,cns pa drug actn ka tabl n prove dat drug acts on crebral cortx
aj prctl tbl 2 exct wohi the jo pchle dinon se arahe,prscrptn angina,HtN,sulphr,tnctr cardmom,cocain in eye,carmantve,atrpne diphnyoxltecaffeine tha
Yr 3 tables jis pr ek pr ileum wala apparatus mam rubina viva le rae the. Dosare pr kymograph tha us par sir fawad the.He askdDrug other thn ans dat cz bradycrdia?no one cud make out wat he was askin xactly.thn sir riaz the with rabit wala xperiment.sai the woh.thn ques the abt carminatve prep, presc abt acute anging.Sulphur n carmintiv tincture 4 id.n their uses. Atropine diphenoxylate powder tha.then stndard error wala table bana tha..phr convulsions wala table tha.n sath ques.pbq ma hypertnsn ki 6 drugs puchi ti!
Pharma viva ques:Orphan receptors,receptors whose ligands r not discoverd,dif b/w erythromycin & clarithromycin,drugs 4 premature labour,apetite supresants,morphine uses,opiate antagonist,antipseudomonal drugs,congestive heart failure treatment,coagulants name,drugs use 4 infertility in additn to clomephine,ans clasificatn & receptors,2 calculations frm the pharmacy blank pages plus directions for use.1 prescription.Standard error wala table n convulsions wala table.2 specimens n uses.Rabbits eye table was given and thy asked which drug and eye receptors. 3 viva's with exp stuff, rabbits eye,ileum n frog heart.
aj prctl tbl 2 exct wohi the jo pchle dinon se arahe,prscrptn angina,HtN,sulphr,tnctr cardmom,cocain in eye,carmantve,atrpne diphnyoxltecaffeine tha
Nd Yr aj wala mera, 3 tables jis pr ek pr ileum wala apparatus mam rubina viva le rae the. Dosare pr kymograph tha us par sir fawad the.kuch ajeeb puch rae the.thn sir riaz the with rabit wala xperiment.sai the woh.thn ques the abt carminatve prep, presc abt angina pctoris.sulfr n cardmum tincture 4 id.n their uses. ATropine diphnxylate powdr tha.then stndard dev wala table bana tha.t test signifcnc.phr convulsions wala table tha.n sath prove it.best ov luck:-)
there r total 11 tabls. Yr pharmacy cpy mei pencil work and def...bs no procedure aur experimental wali cpy pori krni hai...esp formulas and values.
FJ External
drugs used in glaucoma, in asthma. precaution to b given when inhalational antiasthmatics prescribed, drug interactions and side effects of oral contraceptives, antithyroid drugs, adverse effects of radioactive iodine, drugs used in anaesthesia, adverse effects of thiopental, dose of chloroquine, name calcium channel blocker that is given sublingually, adverse effects of chloroquine
Prof shabbir
clinical uses and side effects of steroids,classification of anti-cancers,sources of drugs, def of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacogonosy, bioavailaibilty, bioassay, enzyme induction and inhibition (with examples), types of receptors, dosage and its formula, first pass effect, therapeutic window, types of hypersensitivity reactons, uses and actions of epinephrine, atropine, neostigmine, ephedrine, clonidine,anxiolytics, morphine, drugs used in glaucoma, phenylephrine, drugs causing gynecomastia, side effects of aminoglycosides, tetracyclines

Comments

  1. who's phakki?
    He's been mentioned in the 8th last line of practical section, someone who inevitably gets confused himself and ruins our viva.
    Big thanks by the way.

    ReplyDelete
  2. LOL. Presription sample; Dr. Wantstopass practical.

    ReplyDelete

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