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Lower Limb Stage

- how is femoral sheath formed ? contents? femoral hernia ? (1+2+2)
- what is positive tredelenberg test ? conditions in which this test is positive ? (2+3)
- extrinsic muscles of sole of foot. identify the layers in which they are present and give their nerve supply. (2+1+2)
- classify knee joint. what are various movements possible, role of menisci & cruciate ligaments. (1+3+3+3)
- a football player has sufferd from severe trauma to the lateral part of left leg just below the knee. he drags his left toe when he walks & cannot feel the dorsum of foot. give the origin , distribution & termination of the nerve involved. (1+3+1)
-structures passing under extensor retinaculum

-dorsalis pedis artery
-draw dermatomes
-2nd layer of sole
-if femoral artery is ligated how is limb supplied
-great saphenous vein formation and clinical
-course of nerve most commonly injured in posterior dislocation of hip.

Upper Limb Stage

- claw hand , types 
- pronator syndrome
- ulnar artery
- draw anastomosis around acapula , clinical significance
-mech of abduction at shoulder joint , effects of fracture of surgical neck of humerus on this movement ?
- digital synivial sheath, using your knowledge of anatomy explain why pricks for blood samples are usually made on index or middle finger.? 
-axillary lymph nodes, location, drainage and role in spread of carcinoma.
-muscles supplied by ulnar nerve. what will happen if the nerve is damaged proximal to wrist joint
- dorsal digital expansion. muscles attached to it & mech of their action.

Thorax stage

- thoracic symp trunk
- venous drainage of thoracic wall
- auscultatory areas, murmurs
- mech for increasing the diameters of thoracic cage . joints at which these movements take place, why do movements at true ribs differ from those produced at false ribs.
- after an operation on his left kidney a patient develops difficulty in breathing, on auscultation breath sounds are diminished on left side. what would be the most likely diagnosis. the attending doctor orders xray to confirm. what would be the findings on xray. what had happend to the patient and what should be the streatment ?




·         DR. ATTIYA external examiner
(20 marks viva + 5 marks surface marking)
·         upperlimb+thorax+surfacemarking
  • ·         >radius bone attachment
  • ·         >nerve supply of pronatus quadratus
  • ·         >other muscles supplied by ant.antrossius nerve
  • ·         >right lung identification points
  • ·         >definition of bronchopulmonary segments in one line
  • ·         >significance of segments
  • ·         >table spotting of upperlimb
  • ·         >surface marking of flexor retinaculum of lowerlimb
  • ·         >nerves related to humerus
  • ·         >tennis elbow
  • ·         >pleura n its nerve supply
  • ·         >costodiaphragmatic recess n its importance
  • ·         >paracentesis thoracis
  • ·         >surfac marking of dorsalis pedis artery
  • ·         >trendelenburg's test
  • ·         Saturday night palsy?
  • ·         joints bw 2 vertebra their types?
  • ·         axillary n retinacula(ALL) arteries veins nerves of upper limb (all) Lower limb
  • ·         borders of lungs
  • ·         apex beat
  • ·         fracture of clavicle movement of fractured parts
  • ·         revise all the functions
  • ·         nerve supply of the muscles attached to the bone u get
  • ·         and its joints as well
  • ·         brachial artery(its branches)
  • ·         function of biceps
  • ·         joint for supination n pronation
  • ·         type of joint
  • ·         any other example of pivot joint in body
  • ·         attachments on coracoid process,what is coracoid??
  • ·         name all the muscles of radius and its nerve supply
  • ·         why musculocutaneous is musclucutaneous
  • ·         pronation n supination
  • ·         side determination
  • ·         pivot joint
  • ·         base of heart
  • ·         borders of lung
  • ·         respiratory units
  • ·         broncho pulmonary segments
  • ·         transverse sinus
  • ·         oblique sinus
  • ·         pronator quadratus function
  • ·         other pronators in forearm
  • ·         axis of supination,pronation
  • ·         other pivot joints in body
  • ·         describe right atrium of heart, its blood supply and openings
  • ·         inter atrial septum
  • which vertebrae is this?
  • type of joint b/w vertebra
  • movements of shoulder joint
  • phrenic nerve supplies?
lower limb + embryology

  • ·         do we have a ball n socket joint in the foot
  • ·         what forms the socket
  • ·         movements at ALL the joints
  • ·         cutaneous innervation of superficial cutaneous branch
  • ·         vasti, nerve supply
  • ·         gastrulation
  • ·         neurulation
  • ·         derivatives of ectoderm
  • ·         pigment cells
  • ·         neural crest
  • ·         trophoblast
  • ·         edward syndrome
  • ·         axis of joints
  • ·         name bones of foot
  • ·         structure passing thru groove in cuboid
  • ·         function of peroneus longus
  • ·         dorsiflexion,itx axis
  • ·         find quariceps femoris on limb
  • ·         nerve supply of vastus medialis,
  • ·         at what point nerve to vastus medialis arises
  • ·         derivatives of neural crest
  • ·         nerve supply of  visceral plura
  • ·         cardiac temponade
  • ·         where does fertilization occur
  • ·         Ankle joint , axis movable ?
  • ·         Amniocentesis
  • ·         Chromosomal  abnormalities?names
  • ·         edwards syndrome
  • ·         NTDs
  • ·         chorionic cavity functions amnion and function of fluid
  • ·         a-fetoprotein
  • ·         fully functional placenta
  • ·         common p. nerve
  • ·         hip joint movements muscle responsible and axes!
  • ·         from where the vertical axis for medial n lateral rotation of hip joint pass??
  • ·         >femur attachments
  • ·         >ankle joint
  • ·         >type of joint in inf.tibiofibular joint
  • ·         >tarsal bones
  • ·         >significance of fertilization
  • ·         >functions of amniotic fluid
  • ·         >table spotting of tibial nerve
  • ·         >supply of tibial nerve(muscular+cutaneous)
  • ·         >femur side determination
  • ·         >knee joint
  • ·         >locking (wether it takes place on the ground or off the ground)
  • ·         >table spotting of sciatic nerve n gastrocnemeus n its supply
  • ·         >how gastrocnemeus differs from soleus (origin n action), why there action is different
  • ·         >spermatogenesis
  • ·         >features of mature sperms
  • ·         >conjoined twins
  • ·         >edward syndrome
  • stages of development of oocytes
  • locking on or off ground?





·         DR.SHAKEEL

·         What is functional difference between Hemoglobin and Myoglobin? 
·         What is Structural difference between these two?
·         Name Fatty acids.
·         Classify Fatty acids. Both Classifications.
·         Name some Essential Fatty Acids.
·         Name some Essential Amino Acids.   
·         what is colloid
·         what are trace elements and examples
·         function of iodine
·         gibbs donnans effect its significance
·         osmosis
·         co enzyme of thiamine , its reaction
·         co enzyme of folic acid
·         pentathenic acid, where is it found
·         advantage of lipid bi layer
·         LDH, chylomicrones
·         good colestrol
·         advantages of lipoproteins
·         phospho proteins , examples
·         AST
·         plasmids
·         bacteriophages
·         taurine
·         vitiamin D
·         apo proteins
·         cardio lipins
·         enzymes in diagnosis
·         poly nucleotide
·         purines n pyrimidines
·         DRAW cyclic AMP
·         WRITE down  ammonia buffer
·         modified proteins
·         gamma carboxylation of clotting factors
·         what r non standrd amino acids
·         name non standrd A.A, why so ?
·         significance of LDH
·         taurine
·         enzymes which increase in liver disease
·         oxidorductase+example
·         anti metabolite of uric acid
·         normal level of glucose
·         phosphatidic acid
·         HDL
·         example of another conjugate of proteins, phosphoprotein,  casein ?
·         enzymes  in liver damage? How to detect  them?
·         Enzymes kis trh blood main atay?
·         Vit D alternative name? Calcitriol? How is it formed? Vit D uses?
·         plasma pH, buffers(imp)
·         chemical names of vit E and K
·         functions of vit K
·         difference between glycogen and starch,
·         give any example of polynucleotide,
·         hyaluronic acid
·         uridine
·         can 40mg/dl can be converted to 40mg/100 ml
·         >secretors
·         >qualities of a good buffer
·         >bicarbonate/phosphate, better buffer?
·         other name of folic acid
·         its coenzyme
·         folate trap
·         ultimate result of folate trap
·         megaloblast
·         how will u say that the cell is a megaloblast
·         cAMP
·         uridine

·         EXTERNAL EXAMINER Dr.Afroze (Sims )

·         What are crystalloids?
·         What is Respiratory Alkalosis?
·         What is Saponification?
·         how vitamin deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia
·         GGT
·         role of C
·         role of E
·          role of B1
·         role of b6
·         surface tension
·         its role
·         biliverdin color in feaces
·         ligases
·         carb/lipids/proteins esp. conjugate varieties
·         1 from git,
·         1 frm physiochemical aspects
·         storage diseases
·         colloid osmotic pressure
·         functions of plasma proteins
·         classification of protein
·         globins,globulins,histones
·         classification of lipids
·         lipases
·         eicosanoids, prostaglandins
·         Cholesterol?
·         functions of cholesterol
·         definition of pH, pKa, Ka
·         >diff btw collagen and cellulose their structure?
·         >diff btw gags and glycoprotiens
·         >anomer,enantiomers,d-l isomers
·         >when will you give vit k injection
·         folate trap
·         deficiency of folic acid.....megaloblastic anemia
·         deficiency of vitamin B12
·         difference b/w megaloblastc nd pernicious anemia
·         coenzymes,its examples
·         Whats TPP,its functions
·         disease due 2 deficiency of alpha keto glutarate dehydrogenase
·         level of billirubin n billiverdin in blood
·         purines
·         uric acid
·         isomerism
·         bile salts
all minerals...




·         DR. MEHRUNISA
  • ·         Incisura
  • ·         A, C, V wave
  • ·         What is compliance? What is its value?
  • ·         What makes the sensory part of vasomotor center?
  • ·         What are the values of Starling Forces in normal capillaries?
  • ·         What is physiological splitting of second heart sound?
  • ·         Why cell volume increases?
  • ·         Starling forces?
  • ·         GFR?
  • ·         GFR measurement in clinical setup?
  • ·         Functions of cell membrane.
  • ·         Functions of kidney
  • ·         How does kidney maintains acid base balance
  • ·         Metabolic acidosis, its effect, clinical picture, compensation, partial compensation.....
  • ·         Myasthenia Gravis, Its TreatmenT
  • ·         Composition Of Blood, Plasma Proteins, Values of albumin, Globulin...
  • ·         Motor Unit, Summation...
  • ·         Functions Of ER
  • ·         Erythroblastosis Foetalis...
  • ·         Heparin, Its Function, Its Mechanism of Action...
  • ·         Neuromuscular junctional transmission Myasthenia gravis,
  • ·         apoptopis,
  • ·         counter current multiplier,
  • ·         urea role,
  • ·         urine output,
  • ·         smooth muscle impulse,
  • ·         cell volume maintenance
  • ·         RBC indices etc
  • no. of nephrons
  • where urine is concentrated, how ?
  • parts of nephron
  • adaptive control, e.g ?

  • ·         What is nephron?
  • ·         What are the parts of a nephron?
  • ·         What is the threshold value for glucose?
  • ·         What is Micturition reflex? 
  • ·         What is nerve contraction?
  • ·         Pacemaker ?
  • ·         AV nodal delay?
  • ·         minute resp vol?
  • ·         Alveolar ventilation?
  • ·         V/Q ratio define.
  • ·         Apnea
  • ·         Eupnea
  • ·         Tachypnea
  • ·         Tachycardia
  • ·         Stroke vol output
  • ·         All Lung Volumes n Lung Capacities
  • ·         Diff b/w Atrial n Vent. Fibrillation
  • ·         1st n 2nd Degree Heart Block..
  • ·         Anaphylactic Shock
  • ·         Neurogenic Shock
  • ·         scuba diving,
  • ·         respiration center,
  • ·         ejection fraction etc
  • plateau level of cardiac output
  • cardiac output of athlete and normal person
  • fibrillation


( the credit for the viva questions goes to my class-mates who cared to share and discuss the questions in the class group during prof  )


  1. wel done ................
    and can u guide me for electives in king edward ..........

  2. very difficult.

  3. laiba baji general anatomy ka viva nae hota?

  4. Minor viva includes histo only while major viva includes gross, embryo & GA.

  5. Now I officially know why a 40 year old orthpedic surgeon knew posterior approach was a better strategy in hip surgery but when a student ask why ? He could not answer it and just replied, 'You can see the literature it says so that's why'. When the method of testing is not based on creativity then no wonders why the west has all the inventors, discoverers and hall of famers

  6. asked*
    P.S. This is a case from Pakistan's top medical college (name not disclosed)


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