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Pharmacology Viva Question prof 2011,K.E.M.U

 (Compiled by Sadaf Hafeez)
pharma internal: what are receptors? types, g protein receptors, their advantage, second messengers, ligand is the first messenger, third messengers, parkinsonism drugs, advantage of carbidopa, other use of amantidine, which anticholinergics given, why not atropine, insulin, drugs for type 1 and type 2, can insulin be given in type 2( yes in pregnancy if woman is diabetic and in stress), what do u mean by adverse effect, moa of aminoglycosides, their adverse effects, ( say ototoxicity then nephrotoxicity) which of them affect hearing and which affect vestibular function???

pharmacology: sir zahid: distribution of adrenergic receptors, anti mycobacterial drugs, moa of rifampicin, its adverse effects( do from katzung), adverse effects of pyrazinamide, adverse effects of aminoglycosides, drug interactions of aminoglycosides

uses.....DMARDS(like gold salts,penicillamine etc)....alpha blocker uses(like pheochromocytoma,mastocytosis,etc).....cyclophosphamide...
pharma external:- plasma half life....diff bw aspirin nd effect....metronidazole...why metallic taste?....tetracycline uses...n dats all

PHARMACOLOGY INTERNAL: define drug, define receptor, orphan receptor, spare receptor and its significance, oral hypoglycemic drugs, MOA of sulfonylureas. EXTERNAL: plasma half life n its significance, tetracycline adverse effects,fanconi syndrome, morphine uses and antagonists, how morphine relieves pulmonary edema, name drug having short half life but long duration of action n why it happens.

halofantrine ka mechanism external puchta he!! shaed external ne hi discover kiya he!! u have to tell him k halofantrine ka mechanism chloroquine jesa hota he, ye heme degrading enzyme plasmpesin k sath bind kr k usay inhibit kr deti he!! toxicities r similar to chloroquine!!(as recieved) plus external ko ANTIHELMINTHES bhhht pasand he!!

sir zahid k typical ques hain....
ion trapping, brittles disease( hypoglycemia induced hyperglycemia), fen kony syndrome (tetracycline ki expiry k baad amino acids ki excretion), cheese *somthng* disease ( tyramine usage in mao inhibitors k jo symptoms) , aminoglycosides which affect vestibular ( tobramycin, genta) , cochlear ( kanamycin, amikacin) , nephro (streptomycin) .. uses ov contraceptives,( frm mini), uses ov sulphonamides , DMARDS, ultra long acting insulin ( glargine), long acting penicillin, M1, M2 receptors antagomist(gallamine) , M3 antagonists(derifanacine for overacting blaader), prostate cancer, anabolic steroids.. anti thyroid drugs, barbiturate poisoning n treatmentt, meprobamate,prokinetic drugs (metoclopramide, its a.e TARDIVE DYSKINESIA)), dobutamine k liye pehly adeq...

phrma ext frst pas metabolism,non sedating h1 anatgonist non sedating anxiolytics, chloroquine k uses, anti amoebic drugs...
int. cholinergic agonist antagonist classification, ca chnl blockers k name wich 1 long acting n un k drug interaction

pharma internal.....classify antituberculous drugs..MOA of isoniazid n rifampin,adverse effects.drug given with isoniazid..classify tetracyclines on basis of duration of action..MOA of minoxidil.adverse effects..use of demeclocycline which is actually its adverse effect..

external...renal clearance..proces of excretion through kidney..interferons their use..pagilated interferons.treatment of grand mal epilepsy,status epilecticus,abscence sizrz..a pt of status epilecticus not responding to any drug n even to vagal nerve stimulation what to do?use of diacetyl morphine..antidote of morphine

Monday Morning disease asked by pharma external :

For workers in nitroglycerin (NTG) manufacturing facilities, this can result in a "Monday morning headache" phenomenon for those who experience regular nitroglycerin exposure in the workplace leading to the development of NTG tolerance for the vasodilating effects. Over the weekend the workers lose the tolerance to NTG and when they are reexposed on Monday the prominent vasodilation produces tachycardia, dizziness, and a headache.
pharma Sir Zahid:Aminoglycosides drug interactions,adverse effects,pharmacokinetics-which he said is very imp and u must know.Drugs that cause ototoxicity...
External:def of receptor,are there intracellular receptors?What is the name and underlying mechanism of syndrome that occurs if a cortcosteriod drug administration is suddenly stopped?
its adrenal insufficiency syndrome due to supression of hypthalmo pitutiar adrenal axis after chronic use of corticosteriods
Uses of bromocriptine apart from parkinsonism?

pharma internal: fluroquinolones, name, moa, a.e, tetracycline a.e, fanconi syndrome, organophosphate poisoning treatment, enzyme aging, short acting anticholinesterase.
external: drug definition, h1 antagonist names, hypoglycemic drugs, acarbose hypoglycemic or euglycemic

Pharma sir zahid: cntraceptives ki absolute n relative cntraindications, relative cntraindication ka puch rahe they, anaphylactic shock men adrenaline I/M kyun detay hen I/V kyun nai detay.. Excercise induced asthma ki treatment. Idiosyncaracy n drug allergy ka difference,
potentiation ki example, aminophylline k a/e, phosphodiester inhibitorz.

Pharma:sir zahid-mechanism of tachyphylaxis n tolerance..examples of drugs that are enzyme inducers n they act.give example of a drug that works by inhibiting enzyme.uses n adverse effects of acetozolomide............ext...differences btw idiosyncracy n hypersensitivity...a neonate of one day show abnormal drug response,what it is n explain mechanism?if glucocorticoid suddenly withdrawn,what happens xplain mecanism?name drug given to treat such condition??do glucocorticoid act on aldosterone receptors...yes but little interaction....then name enzme that degrades it just when it reaches aldosterone receptor???precautions for drugs used in gout?if aspirin to be used in gout,give its dosage range..starting n max dose of aspirin that can be used for its antiplatelet effect

Pharma prac 11 on 3 tables. 6 marks each 4 these 3 tble vivas.
remaining 8 tbles carry 4 marks each
2 calculations 4rm pharmacy copy,
1 prescription,
1 cns stimulant table to draw
1 tble 4rm biostat
1 tble regarding rabbit eye's prac
1 regarding cnversionz n abbreviationz
1 tble specimen identification

 In tble vivas they have 3 set apparatus. 1 usually rabbit ileum
1 frog heart prac
n 1 rabbit eye prac
us se related viva hta he

Pharma viva 40 marks ka internal k pas n 40 marks ka external k pas

unkown drug wala pura procedure suntay hen
drugs causing bradycardia n tachycardia other than ANS
Drugs other dan ans
tachycardia: vasodilatorz

ca chanel blockerx

receptors in heart n where they r located?
Receptorz in heart. Mention beta1 n M2
M2 ka sir puchtay hen wo S.A node men hte hen 

kymograph k parts ka puch lete hen
difference b/w kymograph n ecg
Kymograph is mechanical record n ecg is electrical record of heart activity.

ma'm rubina rabbit ileum wala pura procedure b krwa skti hen!!! lyk she said to me drug le kr dikhao, organ bath drain kro phr refill kro, reading le kr dikhao etc etc

rabbit eye wala to sir 4 minutes tk apko miosis n mydriasis men esa ghumatay hen k bs!! wese suntay general e hen!!
drugs causing miosis n mydriasis
wts d mechanism??how they cause miosis or mydriasis?
muscles involved?? which fibres??
Adrenaline loss of accomodation isliye nai krti cz ciliary muscle men muscarinic receptorz hte hen. (as far as i knw bt m nt sure,dats wt i could answer) n atropine krati he cz it blocks muscarinic receptorz. 
 Fibres radial n circular hte hen. Sir puchtay hen radial muscles kya krwate. Ans is dilation. N circular causes cnstriction.

 Easy to remember c 4 cnstrictor(sphinter pupillae), c 4 circular n c 4 cholinergic. Remeber d 'C'. N everything opposite to it in case of dilator pupillae, dilator, radial fibres,sympathetic supply

receptors in eye, where they r located??
 Eye men M3 receptor in constrictor muscles.
Alpha1 in dilator
beta on ciliary epithelium.

reflex pathways, why u trim rabbit eyelashes??
adrenaline loss of accomodation kyun nai krwaye gi??
homatropine kyun dete hen prac men atropine q nai??

Ma'm rubina almost sb se log dose curve ki imprtnce puchti hen. Ans is we can cmpare potencies of 2 drugs.secondly more n High doses can b plotted in dis way.


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