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The sound of Silence

A short story by Hamdan Ali Khan, 1st Year MBBS

The old man sat on the beach, barefooted and alone. Silence reigned everywhere except the occasional thrashing of waves which disturbed the acoustic equilibrium. Night it was, the sky filled with a million lanterns, the birds dozing off quietly and the sea like an old pirate sang a silent shanty. Oh! He missed his youth, when he could swim to the Black Rock without drowning, when he could shout at the vast ocean, his resonant voice fading upon the edges of horizon. But all good things come to an end, the voice that once resonated; now a husky whisper. The man who was the fastest swimmer; now an ancient remainder of time and its echoes. The doctors said he had terminal cancer that he would die in a week. He didn’t fear death, he had no family, nothing to lose except maybe the sight when someone would break his 50 years old record. The silence of the calm sea nurtured in him a desire to swim to the Black Rock once again, one last time. He …

Pathology and Microbiology Viva Questions Prof 2011 King Edward Medical University

Compiled by Sadaf Hafeez and Hafsa Baber

Sir Munir
Viva Qs :

very unpredictable nd luck based viva nd questions ranging from anaerobic jar, viruses classification, mode of viral transmission, neisseria, streptococcus classification based on lancefield group, growth curve, endoexotoxin difference, tb, how can we see antigen antibody reaction in lab( dn't say disk diffusion method) nd he made us draw eggs/cysts of important parasites nd their lifecycle( basically he's interested in asking the route of entry esp if its an autoinfection)
P.S. all the teachers look at ur internal assessment card very CAREFULLY nd then ask u questions accordingly, difficult for those with a better internal assessment :) bt sir munir considers u pass if u hav an internal assessment above 70% 
all examiners tend to repeat their questions except sir munir,

wat is leishmania donovani?its life cycle? draw the amistigote form?at wat resolution will u see tht in microscope?culture media/its type n conjugation?

 Ricketsiae , its species , it is intracellular nd of size of virus thn y nt clasified as a virus ? (Conatins both DNA nd RNA) , Entamoeba draw cyst , to detect trophozite in stool v take fresh stool nd heat stage of microscope ! why? (to id it by its movement) , cyst ko iodine stain aur saline mein daikhin gy to kya kya nazar aey ga !!! Glycogen single nucleus walay mein ziada ho ga ya 4 walay mein!!! cycle of entamoeba ! ulcer ??? why trophozite nt cause disease ! SELECTIVE DIFFERENTIAL nd blood agar

 Sir Munir: culture media and types, w.bancrofti, its life cycle, vector, size of microfilarae, when to collect blood for it...what do u do after collecting blood( i said make slide and see..he said yes and even in wet prep. microfilarae could be seen, these are one of the biggest things that could be seen in micro) 
its schaumann bodies............laminated concretions of calcium n
proteins ......formed in granuloma

Sir Munir is asking Influenza Virus types.... Swine flue and bird flue are also included in types along with type A and type B

sir munir: clostridium difficile lb diagnosis...(imp one being.. cytopathic effect ..exotoxin mediated) anaemia causin parasite(plasmodium schistosoma ankylostoma)

internal. male:hw to differentiate b/t staphylococcus and streptococci. lifecycle of ascaries. lab diagnosis of syphilis.. female:necrosis types with associated questions. tumor markers
Sir Munir: Names of viruses. Diagnosis of viral diseases. Technique for direct immunofluorescence.

sir munir: hw virusez cause carcinoma, name viruses causing ovarian n cervical carcinoma, endo exo toxin diff, ascaris lyf cycle, at which temp dz ascaris grow, clostridium difficle causes wat n y in only in certain gp ov ppl n diagnostic tstz...

auto infection
length of T solium or saginata?.( sir said it cud go upto meters)
why we call it tape worm...?..

sir munir: clostridium difficile lb diagnosis...(imp one being.. cytopathic effect ..exotoxin mediated) anaemia causin parasite(plasmodium schistosoma ankylostoma)

Madam Samina:

very easyyyy....hallmarks of chronic inflammation, what are plasma cells, which is the first antibody formed, what is granuloma, casseous in which condition, which is the essential thing to be present in granuloma( epitheloid cells) ...types of giant cells, psamoma bodies, why are they called so( sand grain like appearance), russel bodies, dystrophic calcification in which condition and in which tumour(??)

ma'am samina: signs of acute inflammation, tb lung nd granulomas ad its location, complement system, oncogenic viruses and the genes causing them, phospholipase pathway nd its mediaters
sir ihtisham: [looks at ur internal assessment 1st, puts down ur marks nd then strts ur viva] asked me basal cell carcinoma nd malignant nd benign tumours diff

mam samina: leiden mutation(hypercoagable states)... paradoxical embolism...
y sudden death?(saddle embolism)....

leiomyoma? spread of tumours? mostly common site of metastasis?most common of git tumours? n tumour markers
Ma'am Samina.:
us ki genes
pro and anti
BCL2 gene ki absence se knsa cancer hoga
P53 k functions
n asked me model of ventricular hypertrophy
Rb gene

mam samina: typez ov necrosis, most common n y?(coagulative cz in infarctz),classify thrombi, mural, hw pulmonary thromboemBolism developz.... female xternal.... culturez n qz 4m enteriobacteriace....

Mam Samina: Metastatic calcification, its causes, body sites and malignancies in which it can occur. What types of cells produce antibodies. What is opsonisation and which antibody opsonises. Subsets of T cells and functions of Th-1 and Th-2 subsets. Functions of complement system.

Some Oft Asked Terms :
Anaplasia – dedifferentiation, lack of differentiation, hallmark of malignancies
Hyperplasia – physiological proliferation Increase in number of cells
Neoplasia – abnormal proliferation
Dysplasia – maturation abnormality
Metaplasia – cell type conversion
Prosoplasia – cell type develops new function
Desmoplasia – connective tissue growth

Patho Practical Viva :

Drill for Patho Practical
Do only these four practical from copy
1 stool 2. urine 3. ZN staining 4. Gram Staining
Spotting :
Instruments ( cotton swab , ESR tube , haemoglibinometer, 4th ?)
Agar Plates ( blood, chocolate, CLED, mcConky, nutrient, and even simple petri dish :p)
Today's confusing gross specimen :
1. Lipoma ( looks like Hodgkin lymphoma :-/ plus its not in the pics on class page )
2.Fatty Liver ( the liver stands erect with left lobe on top so its shape is just like a lung :-/ )

Viva Qs during Practicals by Sir Zahid

Whats is it in this urine slide?
Epithelial cells
What if you receive atypical epithelial cells ?
That shows displasia of epithelial cells that indicate malignancy
Malignancy of what ?
Bladder epitheliam
Whats else can be seen in urine slide?
Yeast cells
More in whom : male or female ?
female due vaginal infection
What if yeast cells are more in males ?
Indicate Candidiasis ...
Candidiasis due to what?
Decreased immunity...
Whats the commonest cause of reduced immunity ?
Diabaets !

What is the MOST COMMON cause of hematuria ?
Stones ! ureteric and nephrotic
Whats the shape of crystals of Triple phosphate ?
Like an envelope
When are the released?
In alkaline urine
What causes Alkaline urine ?
Proteus !
What are casts ?
Solidified proteins
Where are they formed?
In any body cavity...
Why are they found in urine?
Due to leakage from glomerulus in glomerulonephritis

sir zahid asked same qs frm evryone 
crystal shapes....URIC ACID crystals r hexagnal nvr say diamond shaped,CA OXALATE r envelop like n TRIPPLE PHOSFATE r coffin shaped,TYROSINE r broome shapd n LEUCINE r spherical..
pyelonephritis hw to diagnose n hw will u procede...
CLED agar n its significance...
gram -ve n +ve causing UTI..(sir wants u to tell staph saprophyticus as gram +ve...seems like his favourite)
protocol of takn urine sample...

 Viva Qs by External Examiners 2011
Ma'am Abida: jst different cultrz, types of media, bacterial classification of streptococcus based on blood agar, quelling reaction

classification of gram negative bacilli( she expects u to tell about lactose fermenters and non fermenters), characteristics of enterobacteriacae, which of its members are oxidase positive, classify gram positive bacilli.which of them is are these cultured (expects u to tell about anaerobic jar). explain about this jar

 enterobacteriacae(source of energy.. nitrates utilization)CLED AGAR
... chlamydia lab diagnosis...

sterliztion complete? specific uses of dry n wet heat? autoclaving? tuberculosis? pathogenesis n diagnosis?

Extrnl mam: bacteria def, prokaryote characters , classify bacteria , culture characteristics of Clostridia ( aerobic,temp,pH,humidity,color,characters of colonies ), Intrnl mam : cardinal features of inflammation nd their mediators nd chemotaxis causing leukotriene!
External Male: tumor markers. inflamtion mediators.. female:macconkey agar lactose nonfermanting bacteria. salmonella infections. meningitis causing bacteria. steps between blood sample taking from patient and growing the organism on macconkey agar. same for csf sample

external: calcification......whole explaination, mechanism types conditions everything...........complement system. how 3 pathways start, C3 convertase of classical pathway and alternative pathway....

sir extrnal: graves disease an example of?(type 2 hypersensitivity) embolus types .... complement system pathways..... ADCC(immunity)

Extrnl Male : Carcinogenic viruses,chemicals nd edema!

Also Check :

Pathology and Microbiology Viva Questions Prof 2010 

3rd Year resource Bank Viva and Practicals


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