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The sound of Silence

A short story by Hamdan Ali Khan, 1st Year MBBS

The old man sat on the beach, barefooted and alone. Silence reigned everywhere except the occasional thrashing of waves which disturbed the acoustic equilibrium. Night it was, the sky filled with a million lanterns, the birds dozing off quietly and the sea like an old pirate sang a silent shanty. Oh! He missed his youth, when he could swim to the Black Rock without drowning, when he could shout at the vast ocean, his resonant voice fading upon the edges of horizon. But all good things come to an end, the voice that once resonated; now a husky whisper. The man who was the fastest swimmer; now an ancient remainder of time and its echoes. The doctors said he had terminal cancer that he would die in a week. He didn’t fear death, he had no family, nothing to lose except maybe the sight when someone would break his 50 years old record. The silence of the calm sea nurtured in him a desire to swim to the Black Rock once again, one last time. He …

2nd Year Viva Questions 2012

Courtesy : Class of 2015

Anatomy Major

Ext.Neuro:dura,folds,contents,venous sinuses Csf production and drainage,dural nerve supply,arterial supply of cerebellum,lesions of cerebellum..AP:features of stomach,attachment of lesser omentum on liver,contents of portahepatis,extrahepatic biliary app. its blood supply,cholilithiasis,sigmoid mesocolon attachment contents sigmoid colon arterial supply....

Int.HN:structures passing through foramena,venous sinuses,sup vena cava formation,lymphatic drainage of tounge,most common site for cancer in tounge,nerve supply of toung,larynx cartilages,cartilage involed in vocal cord formation,main cartilage for speech,abductor of larynx nerve supply,cause of origin of recrunt layrngeal,ligamentum venosum formation,development of liver,development of diaphragm,

batch E, Ext: spleen, borders, impressions, pelvimetry, three conjugates, obstetric, true and diagonal, identifying male from female pelvis,
medulla, nuclei present at in medulla, what is nucleus abiguus , facial colliculus

Internal (embryology + Head n Neck)- starts from model of brain flexure, spotting, when flexures are develop- partitioning of atrium
- coarctation of aorta

-starts with hemisection of head n neck, spotting of opening of auditory tube, tubal elevation, pharyngeal tonsil, soft palate
-tympanic cavity's anterior wall
-ossicles's names
-function of stapes
-supply of soft palate
-origin of ureter with week of development
-development of kidney with model of development
-parts of urogenital sinus
-development of bladder
-congenital polycystic kidney disease
-nerve supply of tongue
-9th cranial nerve ki branches
-formation of pharyngeal plexus
-otic ganglion-arterial supply of thyroid-LRC nasal septum model pe Label the nerve and areteries-remnnats of notohord-developmnt of lesser sac -develpmnt of vertebral bodeis
batch E: highlight system for today was CVS, heart ki development, sometimes uterus ki development, remnants of vessels, remnants of mesonephric and paramesonephric ducts..also pharyngeal arch derivatives.
TM joint almost her ek se! movements of TM joint, muscles producing movements, muscles of mastication, develpment nerve supply.

External (AP n Neuro)
-general features of stomach
-how it is connected to liver
-what lies behind stomach
-how lesser sac communicates with great peritonial cavity
-boundaries of epiploic foramen
-uterus's nerve supply
-where its affrent sympathetic fibers go
-peritoneum related to uterus, its clinical significance
-major support of uterus
-vertebrate's parts
-ligaments attachments
-what is intervertebral disc
-what joint it forms with vertebrae
-disc prolapsemcburneys insicions-pelvic outlet -transeverse diamnter of oultet-imp of ischial spnie-weight of live-support of liver-extraperitoneal organs-attchmnts of mesenteries-plexuse

- what is corpus collosum
- its function
- what kind of fibres it has
- major forcep, minor forcep
- function of commissural fibres
- broca's n wernicke's area location, function n lesions-urinary bladder ki supports n relationz-coelic ganglion n plexus-superior n inferior hypogastric plexus-liver spotting plus lobes-palpation of liver in heptomegaly-reasons of hepatomegaly-types of hepatitis-inferior vena cava mein veins ki openings in dffrnt parts-spinothalamic tract-functions of thalamus-parietal lobe-function of somatosthetic association area-optic chiasma lesions-visual pathway-reticular nuclei -functions-centers of brains associated with emotions and personality.

Internal viva:
-atlantoaxis joint
-movemnts on latral joints of atlntoaxis joint
-structur pasing through mandibular foraramen
-mandibular nrv ki branches
-facial nrv
-type,course n branches of facial
-specialy asked abt sensry sply of facial
-developmnt of tongue
-suply of tongue

external viva:
-significance of sacral promontory
-spleenic ligamnts
-why spleen z intraperetonial
-primary n secndry retroperetonial organs
-ovarian bursa ki boundries
-corpus callosum n its projecting fibres
-lesions of corpus calllosum
-parts of vermis

Surface marking: mostly spleen, liver borders, stomach,kidney, gall bladder.. aorta, vessels and nerves of head neck,

01 Dec

-m'am had digestive and cvs models today, concerned developments+its most major anomaly
m'am repeats A LOT, just have a look at the models she has kept on ur day n read those developments
-head n neck, m'am mostly asks only from cranial nerves and end chaps (pharynx-eye)+glands and temporomandibular joint

-read the names of main parts/segments of visceras + blood and nerve supplies of all
-only major and superficial things from neuro (imp tracks, blood supply, cortical areas, pyramids, medial lemiscus, septum pellucidum.. kind)
ext nice, spleen: anatomical position lig, atchnt on part of stmch nd kidney. direction of splenomegaly, efct of spleenectmy. colon b sply. megacolon. bht main main puch rae. neuro me cmponents of diencph. nuclei f hypoth. func of hpthal. septum pellucidum Pelivimetry k 3 conjugates. define portal circ.(2 cap beds hote) kahan kahan hoti body me(hypopheseal, renal, hepatic) baqi repeat hi the n koi anhoi cheez ni puchi.
Int: cranial nrv, foramina of skl q repeat hue bht. rot of stomach, pyloric sten nd duod atresia me diff(projectile vomiting nd a few othr), intorsion nd extorsion(dnt use clkwis nd anticlkwis say medial n lateral)
y inf obl/sup obliq opp dir me le k jate baqi sare recti to name k corresponding side pe mvt krwate?
psymp ganglia ciliary ki exact locat.sp acess ki cranial part ki dist thru?
pharynx k mscles nd nrv sply. cervicl symp ganglia.Batch D
-Internal : its all abt luck k konsa model ajaye .. i got skull, foramen ovale, kia pass krta ha, mandibular nrv ki supply, area of supply, which muscles, other than mastication, derivative of 1st 2nd arch, sup thyroid art , nerv at upper pole of thyroid....
-External : sweetest person & that demo sitting at the back constantly nodding at your answers is very encouraging :P rapid fire..spleen uthao, surfaces, impressions , ligaments ...spleenomegaly causes etc Content of lenorenal lig... Uterus .. broad lig k contents... Round lig k contents... Major support of uterus... Areas of frontal lobe.. cerebellum areas 
- Spotting : worst so far :@
external asks EVERY THING about AP.. peritoneum ki tracing b puchi sir ny.. apki LUCK ha k ap pr kon sy questions a jayen

5th dec!
ascending and descending tracts- pyramidal, lateral spinothalamic, medial leminiscus
function of thalamus- relay station. perception of crude sensations following lesions of cerebrum
UMN and LMN lesions
types of cerebral fibres- projection, association, commisural
inferor olivary nucleus
functional areas in the cortex and their location
nuclei at the level of superior colliculus
occulomotor nerve nuclei both
falciform ligament, lig venosum. derivatives of?
virus affecting testis
pancreas, duodenum- blood supply
colon- parts. bloood supply, derivatives if hindgut,point of demarcation of change in blood supply nd nerve supply
pudendal nerve and its branches in the pudenda canal
supports of uterus, blood supply, anastomosis with ovarian artery
anterior abdominal wall, muscles and nerves supplying
contents of scrotum
gall bladder peritoneal relations
nerve supply of stomach
func of parasympatheticsin stomach- source
omental bursa, importance
portal vein formation, relations,
anal anastomosis
round igament of uterus
broad ligament- contents
adrenal gland has no parasym supply
greater splanchnic nerve origin
pelvic splanchnic nerves

mam Rafia

From bones- mandible- attachments
skull k mainly foramina e suna. like is foramen main sse konsi nerve passs krti and us ka intracranial course and branches
ziada facial, trigemminal and vagus ki branches suni.
facial intracranial course nd intracranial branches,type of fibers in chorda tympani 
vagus branches in neck
larynx- developmnt, muscles, nerves supplying it
tracheoesopageal fistula ki types
atlas vertebrae
development of hindgut
attached muscles at zygomatic arch
rotation of stomach
maxillary nerve ka course
blood and nerve supply of soft n hard palate
sympathetic ganglia in head n neck region
parasympathetic ganglia and their roots
otic ganglion
greater petrosal nerves n deep petrosal nerves and ye kon se fibres carry kartin
ventricle formation in heart
middle meningeal artery n course
mandibular nerve ki branches
development of kidney

surface marking main mam points b sunti in additionn to marking on the body!!
spotting main heart or kidney ka model aya tha!

Anatomy Spotting

each table with three spots n one question related to spot n three resting tables
-fissure for logamentum vinosum,inf. vena cava,bile duct
formation of bile duct
-cardiac end,pylorus,greater curvature
arteries along greater curvature
-ureter,ovary,external illiac artery
continuation of external illiac artery
-embryo model..endocardial cusion,septum primum,muscular part of IV septum
structure forming right atria
-allantois,mesenchyme,vertebral column
structure derived from allantois
-radiograph...frontal sinus,vomer,post. inf. illiac spine,sacroilliac joint
-superior colliculus,koi artery the,third point yaad nae
superiior colliculus ka function
-piriform fossa,vocal fold,circumvilate papilla
lateral boundary of piriform fossa
-vagus nerve,sumbandibular gland,thrd spot not sure k konsi nerve the
vagus ki branch in neck
-post. ethmoidal foramen(not sure),foramen ovale,int. acoustic meatus
ganglia topographcally related to nerve passing through foramen ovale

Physiology Viva 

  • Internal (Sensory system- GIT- Motor system)
  • Functions of spinal cord
  • Functions of Hippocampus
  • Retrograde amnesia
  • What is sleep?
  • Functions of duodenum 
  • function of cerebellum
  • afferents of cerebellum
  • what is speech?
  • function of dorsal spinocerebellar tract
  • sleep spindles
  • what is CNS
  • parts of brain
  • components of Speech  (word formation in wernicke n broca,Phonation,Resonance,Articulation Told by mam herself)
  • what z thought
  • function of basal ganglia
  • muscle spindle
  • Caudate n putamen Circuits
  • What r Color Blobs
  • Batch A:
  • ascending n descending tracts of spinal cord
  • function of spinoreticular tract
  • function of reticular formation
  • function of thalamus
  • function of intralaminar nucleus of thalamus
  • areas of prefrontal area
  • functions of cereellum
  • connections of cerellum
  • basal ganglia 
  • wernicke area
  • function of wernickes area of non dominant hemisphere
  • functions of basal ganglia
  • spike dome potential
  • waves in sleep
  • synptic ptential
  • movements of large intestine
  • functions of cerebellum
  • nystagmus
  • causes of nystagmus
  • pain receptor...and its pathway 
  • fuctions of pons,epilepsy,association areas, synapses, synaptic delay,somatosensory cortex,pyrimidal tract,muscle spindle, csf functions,ascending/descndng tracts. Antidromic conduction
External (Endocrinology- Special Senses)
  • Functions of middle ear
  • Functions of growth hormone
  • What are somatomedians?
  • IGF-1
  • Gigantism
  • Attenuation Reflex 
  • Light and Dark Adaptation
  • Mechanism for detection of the direction of sound  
  • impedance matching
  • place principle
  • In Breast dvplmnt roll of hormone
  • milk ejection
  • pituitry hormones n their regulation
  • Volleys effect
  • what is hormone
  • what r inhibitory hormones
  • Batch A:
  • what are harmones?
  • what are paracrine n autocrine harmones
  • ant. pituitary harmones
  • inhibitory harmones?
  • function of growth harmone
  • function of oxytocin
  • what is neuroendocrine reflex?
  • circadian rythm of cortisol?
  • functions of middle ear
  • pancreatic hormones 
  • functions of insulin(which hormone def leads to ketoacidosis)
  •  gluconeogenesis, hormones promoting gluconeogenesis
  • aqueous humour, functions, site of sec
  • intra occular pressure
  • cells in retina
  • electrotonic conduction in retina
  • action potential generate in which cells of retina
  • optic nerve
  • visual pathway
  • aldosterone
  • ACTH
  • cortisol  
  • insulin receptors
  • stammering
  • fluent and non fluent speech
  • functions of stomach
  • how oxytocin acts
  • thyrotoxicosis
  • myxoedema
  • no of hair cells
  • auditory pathway
  • decussation of auditory pathway
  • functions of inner ear
  • OGTT. ratio of insulin to glucagon,diabetes insip& melitis                 
High Yield Systems
  1. Endocrinology
  2. Special Senses
  3. GIT
  4. Motor
8th dec.
External- Motor, GIT, Somatosensory!
vomiting- affrents and effrents
stages of spinal cord complete transaction
which relexes appear first, paraplegia of which type
chemoreceptive trigger zone
what factors other than GIT cause vomiting
if drugs are injected into blood wil they still trigger the chemoreceptive area?
why are they called haustrations
defecation reflex, types, which one is more powerful
saccadic movement
cord righting reflex
Brown sequard syndrome- very much repeated question
motor areas,
sensory areas- Broadmanns numbers
functions of pre frontal area
areas in prefrontal cortex
functions of basal ganglia
reflex action- definition
conditioned/unconditioned reflexes
reflex arc
receptors- their types
pain- fast pain slow pain pathways, their terminations, transmitters released
sleep- def
sleep waves
INTERNAL - Endo, special senses
funtions of ear- external, middle ear
functions of semi circular canals
attenuation reflex
Aldosterone - mam's fav question
function of aldosterone
mechanism of aldosterone
location of receptors of thyroid hormone, aldosterone, cortisol
functions of growth hormone
mechanism of ACTH
oxytocin function
Addison's disease
function of calcitonin
site of release of inhibin
functions of estrogen
nodal point
fovea centrallis
functions of retina
odorants- mechanism

Physiology Practicals

Total 18 Practicals:
8 Nervous System, 4 Eye, 6 Frog.

All 4 Eye Practicals and All 6 Frog related Practicals Are MUST DONE AFFAIR!
In Nervous System, Hearing Test are most common!
25 min at first to write down 2 practicals!
Headings: Principle, Apparatus, Procedure, Observations(if any), Precautions.

Performance TOTAL SELF SERVICE! :p
Practical Viva by both examiner just related to Practicals! 2-3 ques just!

biochem major

biochem ext.(dr kamran) such a sweet person.......easy easy pocha agr kisi say hormonerelated pocha to bus woi pocha.....mjh say pituitary hormones pochay...function of prolactin or TSH....bus...then Sir shakeel k sath it was a rapid fire roundtranspeptidationglycineglutathione
NADPH2antioxidant enzymeHMP shunt pathwayfolate traphypogylcemiaor,transketolases n tranaldolases aisay he tha sub :P

External viva:
-ur general intro and some idhar udhar ki baaten to relax u
-Protein synthesis
-thyroid gland and its hormones
-functions of calcitonin and its beneficial effect(strengthen bones)
- renal function tests. role of epinephrine.. site of release, action 
Sir shakeel viva:
-what is gluconeogenesis
-what is pyruvate
-what is transamination
-what are alpha keto acids and name some
-causes of hyperammonemia and why is ammonia toxic to brain(sir said i have told u 3 reasons fr it in class lecture)
-what is transpetidation
-what is salvage
-what is function of adenosine deaminase and its deffeicincy
-G6PDH and its role

Sir Shakeel viva:
-metabolism of purine n pyrimidine
-lesch nyhan syndrome
-primry n sec hyperuricemia
-symptoms of hypoglycemia
-gycemic index
-pyruvate dehydrogenase complx
-ketoacidosis n its link wd diabetes
-HbA1c ki imprtnc
-sources of acetyl CoA
-daily intake of proteins
-ketone bodies synthesisHMG coA reductase regulation 

External viva:
-thyroid k fnctionz
-wt z heme n sythesis
- glucose regulation
-thyroid hormone synth n effects
-genetics se cloning, probes, palindromes, recombinant dna, transgenic animals, PCR, SNP

 practical me glycated hb,
TMG and renal threshold of glucose,
does TAG contribute to total blood cholestrol,
how much NH3 wil rise so that person wil come to know that he has hyperammonemia
,how NH3 afect brain -sir said i told u about its efect on brain by A-ketobutyrate in class,
cause of hypo and hyprcalcemia and effects,how much bilirubin wil rise to give yellow colour to eyes,
HDL and what is level of hdl in healthy person,
sources of NH3 and urea,hypoglycemia and causes
Sir Shakeel Viva:
dobson Johnson Disease.
Criggler Najjar Disease
causes of hypouricemia
adenosine deaminase deficiency
carcenoid tumour(Indole acetic acid
functions of Alpha ketoglutarate
reactive hypoglycemia
Chemical nature of pyruvate and OAA
External viva
HMP Shunt


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