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Anatomy (Important Topics)



Well, anything can be important from examiner’s point of view but the topics repeated and important most of the time are as follows:

   Gross Anatomy:

    Bones:

          Never compromise in this part as almost every region has some bone. Some bones are done separately while hand,foot,pelvis are done as a whole.Their anatomical position, side determination,features and attachments,clinicals are important in vivas as well as spotting(osteology and X-rays). A bone or any viscera is to be held according to your anatomical position, not according to examiner’s anatomical position. Ossification of some exceptional bones i.e. clavicle (first bone to ossify and ossify in membrane), femur (secondary centre for lower end appear at end of 9th month of IU life), humerus etc. is important. Law of ossification is very important. Sesamoid bones are also important.

   Muscles:          

           Muscles of every region are important. Their origin, insertion, nerve supply, actions and their clinicals are important from written, viva and spotting point of view. Muscles of dual supply are important like brachialis, adductor magnus, pectineus (hybrid muscles).

  Nerves:

          Each and every nerve is important. Their root value, origin, course, termination, branches, areas of supply, plexuses, injury clinicals, regional nerve blocks are important. Cutaneous nerves and dermatomes of every region are important. Important are the nerves in contact with the bone.

 Blood vessels:

          You must know the beginning, course, termination, branches, tributaries, anastomosis and arterial arches, venous plexus and their communications (if any). Their injury clinicals are also important for PBQs (problem based questions). Always remember:  Profunda Femoris artery is the chief artery of thigh and Femoral artery is the chief artery of whole of the lower limb.

 Lymph Nodes:

         Lymph nodes and lymphatics of every region are important as the infection etc. can spread through them to the remote places of the body.

  Joints:

         All the joints are important. Their type, articular surfaces, factors stabilizing a joint i.e. ligaments, articular discs etc., relations, blood,nerve,lymphatic supply, movements, muscles producing movements, axes of movements, clinical deformities are important. Locking and interlocking mechanism of the knee joint is very important.
        If you have limited time for revision then just go through bones, muscle tables, joints, nerves, blood vessels and clinicals (given in appendix at the end of each region in ‘B D Chaurasia’s Human Anatomy’).

  Miscellaneous:

           Breast
           Clavipectoral fascia
           Boundaries and Contents of Axilla
           Brachial plexus & its  Diagram        
           Carrying angle
           Movements of Thumb
           Rotator Cuff of Shoulder and its Importance
           Intermuscular spaces
           Anastomosis around scapula, elbow joint, knee joint and on the back of thigh.
           Cubital and Popliteal Fossa
           Bursae, Sheaths and their clinical importance.
            Vincula Longa and Brevia
            Flexor, Extensor and Peroneal Retinacula
            Palmar and Plantar Aponeurosis
            Spaces of Hand
            Anatomical snuff box
            Dorsal Digital Expansion
            Difference b/w midinguinal point & midpoint of inguinal ligament
            False pelvis & true pelvis
            Fascia Lata
            Femoral triangle
            Adductor canal
            Structures under the cover of gluteus maximas
            Trochanteric and cruciate anastomosis
            Structures passing through greater and lesser sciatic foramina
            Arches of Foot.
           Inlet & outlet of thorax
           Respiratory movements
           Wall of thorax
           Azygos & Hemiazygos veins & their clinical importance
           Lungs & Pleurae
           Mediastinum
          Pericardium & heart (diagram of arterial supply of heart)
          Trachea & Esophagus
          Diaphragm (from BD volume 2, chapter 26)

    Clinicals:

           Its better to do the clinicals from KLM notes available at the photocopier. Following are some of the important clinicals:
             Fractures of Humerus, Radius (Colles fracture), Ulna, Hip bone, Femur, Sprain of ankle joint due to high heels.
             Peau d’orange appearance (breast)
             Carcinoma of Breast
             Horner’s syndrome
             Dawbarn’s sign
             Poland syndrome
             Paralysis of Serratus Anterior, Latissimus Dorsi, Deltoid, Gluteus maximus, medius, minimus (gait disturbances)
             Injury to axillary nerve, spinal accessory nerve, radial nerve (wrist drop), median nerve (carpal tunnel syndrome), ulnar nerve (claw hand), superior gluteal nerve, common fibular nerve (foot drop), sciatic nerve, tibial nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve
             Injury to axillary vein
             Brachial Plexus Injuries
             Clinical significance of cubital fossa
             Tennis elbow, Pulled Elbow, Student’s elbow
             Measurement of Radial pulse
             Funny bone-Medial Epicondyle-why?
             Duputren Contracture
             Tenosynovitis
             Dermatoglyphics
             Frozen shoulder
            Coxa Vara & Coxa Valga, Genu Valgam & Genu Varum
            Bipartite & Tripartite patella
            Knee jerk, Biceps jerk & Ankle jerk reflex
            Femoral Hernia
            Accessory Obturator Artery
           Intragluteal & Intradeltoid Injections
           Venous return from leg (peripheral heart)
           Varicose veins
           Housemaid’s Knee, Clergyman’s knee
           Clubfoot
           Foot drop
           Sciatica
           Referred pain of hip joint
           Shenton’s line
           Aspiration of Hip joint
           Claw toe, mallet toe, hammer toe.
           Pes planus & pes cavus
           Unhappy triad (very important)
           Fresher’s syndrome
           Thoracic inlet syndrome
           Funnel & pigeon chest
          Disc prolapse
          Posture changes in dyspnoea
          Angina Pectoris
          Cardiac Referred pain
          Myocardial Infarction
          Thoracocentesis
          Pleurisy, Pneumothorax, Haemothorax
          Carina
          Mediastinal syndrome
          Valvular heart diseases (Stenosis & regurgitation)
          Precordium
          Cor pulmonale
          Aortic aneurysm, Co-arctation of aorta, Patent Ductus Arteriosus
          Tracheal tug
         Flail Chest
         Sternal Biopsy
         Cardiac tamponade
        Pericardial rub, Pericardial Effusion, Pericardiocentesis 

   Surface Anatomy:

        Axillary & Brachial arteries
        Flexor & Extensor Retinaculum
        Anterior and Posterior Tibial Arteries
        Great & Short Saphenous Veins
        Dorsalis Pedis Artery
        Sciatic & Tibial Nerve
        Extensor & Flexor Retinaculum
        Suprasternal notch & Sternal Angle
       Lungs & Pleura
       Borders of Heart
      Cardiac Valves and Auscultatory Areas (The tricuspid area is left 4th intercostal space close to sternum) (Do it from Netter’s Atlas as        given incorrect in BD)     
    

      Histology:

      Cytoplasmic Inclusions
      Cell Junctions
      Epithelium & Glands
      Connective Tissue (Cells, Fibres, Classification)
      Muscular & Nervous Tissue
      Circulatory System
      Lymphoid Tissue
      Thick & Thin Skin

     General Embryology:

       Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis
       Comparison of Gametes
       Ovarian & Menstrual Cycle
       Acrosome Reaction & Capacitation
       Sperm Counts
       Fertilization
       Chorionic Sac & Chorionic Villi Development
       Implantation & its Sites
       Ectopic Pregnancies
       Placenta Previa (very important)
       Derivatives of Germ Layers
       Notochord
       Neurulation
       Somitogenesis
       CVS Development
       Folding of Embryo
       Procedures for Assessing Fetal Status
       Placenta (very important): See which part (maternal or fetal) is asked
       Placental Anomalies
       Parturition
       Amnion, Amniotic fluid & their abnormalities
       Multiple pregnancies (very important)
   

        General Anatomy:

        Burns (from KLM or lecture notes)
        Bones (Functions, Classification, Parts of a developing long bone, Blood Supply)
        Rule of direction of Nutrient Foramen
        Types of Cartilage
        General & Skeletal Muscle Classification
        Aponeurosis
        Structure Related to muscles
        Joints
        Classification of Blood Vessels
        Anastomosis
        Lymphatic System
        Nervous System (Typical spinal nerve & Autonomic nervous system)
        Ossification
               
      

    

Comments

  1. Thanx Sadaf Baji. Your appreciation means a lot! :)

    ReplyDelete
  2. Seems like everything is important muscles, nerves, bones, vasculature (is there anything else)...surface anatomy list is useful though!

    ReplyDelete

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