Anatomy (Important Topics)
Well, anything can be important from examiner’s point of view but the topics repeated and important most of the time are as follows:
Never compromise in this part as almost every region has some bone. Some bones are done separately while hand,foot,pelvis are done as a whole.Their anatomical position, side determination,features and attachments,clinicals are important in vivas as well as spotting(osteology and X-rays). A bone or any viscera is to be held according to your anatomical position, not according to examiner’s anatomical position. Ossification of some exceptional bones i.e. clavicle (first bone to ossify and ossify in membrane), femur (secondary centre for lower end appear at end of 9th month of IU life), humerus etc. is important. Law of ossification is very important. Sesamoid bones are also important.
Muscles of every region are important. Their origin, insertion, nerve supply, actions and their clinicals are important from written, viva and spotting point of view. Muscles of dual supply are important like brachialis, adductor magnus, pectineus (hybrid muscles).
Each and every nerve is important. Their root value, origin, course, termination, branches, areas of supply, plexuses, injury clinicals, regional nerve blocks are important. Cutaneous nerves and dermatomes of every region are important. Important are the nerves in contact with the bone.
You must know the beginning, course, termination, branches, tributaries, anastomosis and arterial arches, venous plexus and their communications (if any). Their injury clinicals are also important for PBQs (problem based questions). Always remember: Profunda Femoris artery is the chief artery of thigh and Femoral artery is the chief artery of whole of the lower limb.
Lymph nodes and lymphatics of every region are important as the infection etc. can spread through them to the remote places of the body.
All the joints are important. Their type, articular surfaces, factors stabilizing a joint i.e. ligaments, articular discs etc., relations, blood,nerve,lymphatic supply, movements, muscles producing movements, axes of movements, clinical deformities are important. Locking and interlocking mechanism of the knee joint is very important.
If you have limited time for revision then just go through bones, muscle tables, joints, nerves, blood vessels and clinicals (given in appendix at the end of each region in ‘B D Chaurasia’s Human Anatomy’).
Boundaries and Contents of Axilla
Brachial plexus & its Diagram
Movements of Thumb
Rotator Cuff of Shoulder and its Importance
Anastomosis around scapula, elbow joint, knee joint and on the back of thigh.
Cubital and Popliteal Fossa
Bursae, Sheaths and their clinical importance.
Vincula Longa and Brevia
Flexor, Extensor and Peroneal Retinacula
Palmar and Plantar Aponeurosis
Spaces of Hand
Anatomical snuff box
Dorsal Digital Expansion
Difference b/w midinguinal point & midpoint of inguinal ligament
False pelvis & true pelvis
Structures under the cover of gluteus maximas
Trochanteric and cruciate anastomosis
Structures passing through greater and lesser sciatic foramina
Arches of Foot.
Inlet & outlet of thorax
Wall of thorax
Azygos & Hemiazygos veins & their clinical importance
Lungs & Pleurae
Pericardium & heart (diagram of arterial supply of heart)
Trachea & Esophagus
Diaphragm (from BD volume 2, chapter 26)
Its better to do the clinicals from KLM notes available at the photocopier. Following are some of the important clinicals:
Fractures of Humerus, Radius (Colles fracture), Ulna, Hip bone, Femur, Sprain of ankle joint due to high heels.
Peau d’orange appearance (breast)
Carcinoma of Breast
Paralysis of Serratus Anterior, Latissimus Dorsi, Deltoid, Gluteus maximus, medius, minimus (gait disturbances)
Injury to axillary nerve, spinal accessory nerve, radial nerve (wrist drop), median nerve (carpal tunnel syndrome), ulnar nerve (claw hand), superior gluteal nerve, common fibular nerve (foot drop), sciatic nerve, tibial nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve
Injury to axillary vein
Brachial Plexus Injuries
Clinical significance of cubital fossa
Tennis elbow, Pulled Elbow, Student’s elbow
Measurement of Radial pulse
Funny bone-Medial Epicondyle-why?
Coxa Vara & Coxa Valga, Genu Valgam & Genu Varum
Bipartite & Tripartite patella
Knee jerk, Biceps jerk & Ankle jerk reflex
Accessory Obturator Artery
Intragluteal & Intradeltoid Injections
Venous return from leg (peripheral heart)
Housemaid’s Knee, Clergyman’s knee
Referred pain of hip joint
Aspiration of Hip joint
Claw toe, mallet toe, hammer toe.
Pes planus & pes cavus
Unhappy triad (very important)
Thoracic inlet syndrome
Funnel & pigeon chest
Posture changes in dyspnoea
Cardiac Referred pain
Pleurisy, Pneumothorax, Haemothorax
Valvular heart diseases (Stenosis & regurgitation)
Aortic aneurysm, Co-arctation of aorta, Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Pericardial rub, Pericardial Effusion, Pericardiocentesis
Axillary & Brachial arteries
Flexor & Extensor Retinaculum
Anterior and Posterior Tibial Arteries
Great & Short Saphenous Veins
Dorsalis Pedis Artery
Sciatic & Tibial Nerve
Extensor & Flexor Retinaculum
Suprasternal notch & Sternal Angle
Lungs & Pleura
Borders of Heart
Cardiac Valves and Auscultatory Areas (The tricuspid area is left 4th intercostal space close to sternum) (Do it from Netter’s Atlas as given incorrect in BD)
Epithelium & Glands
Connective Tissue (Cells, Fibres, Classification)
Muscular & Nervous Tissue
Thick & Thin Skin
Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis
Comparison of Gametes
Ovarian & Menstrual Cycle
Acrosome Reaction & Capacitation
Chorionic Sac & Chorionic Villi Development
Implantation & its Sites
Placenta Previa (very important)
Derivatives of Germ Layers
Folding of Embryo
Procedures for Assessing Fetal Status
Placenta (very important): See which part (maternal or fetal) is asked
Amnion, Amniotic fluid & their abnormalities
Multiple pregnancies (very important)
Burns (from KLM or lecture notes)
Bones (Functions, Classification, Parts of a developing long bone, Blood Supply)
Rule of direction of Nutrient Foramen
Types of Cartilage
General & Skeletal Muscle Classification
Structure Related to muscles
Classification of Blood Vessels
Nervous System (Typical spinal nerve & Autonomic nervous system)