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VIVA GUIDE TO FIRST PROF (PART-1)- ANATOMY, BIOCHEM, PHYSIOLOGY...

Hey first years! I actually had all the bank of VIVA questions of the last year saved. What we did was that we asked everyone in the class to come online and share his/her experiences and questions on the facebook group of our class after taking the vivas. So I am giving you all that had been uploaded by my class fellows. I just made a doc of each subject and compiled everyone's contribution. 
Here it is. Just don't get intimidated by the length of it :P Some questions might repeat. I hope you'll have a good idea of what happened in last year's prof and how :) So at least, don't skip the questions mentioned below.

Best of luck :)





Anatomy guide and VIVA questions for Prof
§  Major viva.Main focus should be on chalking of bones, joints and movements and nerve supply , actions while preparing for viva.Be on time , surface marking starts at exact 7:30.Us k baad people are called into L.R.C in groups , each person is handed a bone.ab sab se pehle you have to mark the attachments , there is ample time.Phir Maam Attiya takes the external , she asks three, four points about the bone given to you.Mujhse capsular attachments karai thi and nerve supply of muscles attached.Then adjunct , conjunct movements of knee joint.Then aik aadh question embryo ka and you are good to go , shes such a sweetheart.(Maam attiya has lower limb , embryo and g.a)Us k baad you have to wait around in the L.R.C for Maam Raafia ki turn.Just relax back on the chairs and revise the limb on display apney sath waley bandey k sath.Maam Raafia calls two bachey aik sath.One has to do the spotting on the limb on display ( She has upper limb , thorax so upper limb was on display.)Gandi kaali body thi but muscles identify hogaye they , she points on the muscles and gives you around a minute to decide what they are while she takes the viva of the other kid.Utni dair mein you should identify the muscles and make a mental sketch of their nerve supplies , actions cause when she'll come around again , yehi poochein gi.e.g agar pronator teres hai tu phir her next question will be what nerves passes b/w these two heads , associated syndrome)Then its your turn for viva.Visceras , lung impressions , bucket handle , pump handle movements , typical atypical ribs , heart k features general , sternum and ribs ki attachments aani chahiye :)Joints k axises poochey they , ulna k joints and types , whether thymus is present in adults or not , bas superficial si cheezain poochein :)Bas us k baad aap rafu chakar. ;)Now half the people do spotting first , then the rest.Keep contact and ask the pehle group waley to text all the spots , hogayi anatomy.Keep your cool , Maam Raafia baar baar pochein gi if " you are sure" , nod and say "yes" , inshallah sab pass hongein.Spotting questions.Evertors, name them?Artery most commonly affected in MI?Nerves forming deep cardiac plexus?Nerves injured in cubital tunnel syndrome?Radiographs pe obturator foramen , pubic symphysis pe spots they. Oligohydroamnios and causes,
§  questions asked to me by mam attia: attachments on tibia, types of decidua and definition, growing end of bone, sendups ma marks :P difference between primary and secondary spermatocyte, difference of types of villi
§  percentage of tubal pregnancies, fate of neural crest cells, from where adrenal cortex is derived, joints formed by hip bone, their types, difference between primary and secondary cartilaginous joints, movements at ankle joint
§  femur atachments (marking) , blood supply of neck of femur, growing end, y growing end, secondary centers of ossification, extension of knee kon krwata? rectus femoris is different from other extensors hw? sacrococcygeal teratoma
§  mam raafia: describe impressions n hilum of left lung, spotting on limb of palmaris longus and ulnar nerve, blood supply of heart, perform movements of bucket handle and pump handle (she'll hand u a rib n would say which rib is it and then ask u to perform the movemnt by that rib. For e.g 6th rib pe pump handle n 7 th pe bucket handle movement ho gi) , courses of nerves
§  supination and pronation movements, their axis and from where their axis pass in hand, smith's fracture, extensor expansion, action of trapezius, axis of pump handle movement, joints involved, range of movement at manubriosternal joint
§  left lung identification, hold heart in anatomical position, find left atrium on heart, bronchopulmunary segments, spotting of deltoid, nerve supply of it, other muscle supplies by this nerve, action of muscle
§  right lung identification, and a very weird question "wat structures cover the lungs"... "maam visceral pleura parietal pleura ... and thoracic cage (still she asked for more) maam deep fascia superficial fascia and finally skin...attachments on humerus, nerve supply of bracialis. meaning of "proprioceptive" sarcococcegeal teratoma, flexors of hip joint( dont forget to mention rectus femoris), difference between primary and secondary oocyte. Spotting was easy and do revise the hand models. => first rib etcDO study atlas for lung etc cause maam zarur ID krwati hain. And well, be confident.

Surface Marking - Flexor Retinaculum
External - Fibula ki side determination and the joints it makes + their types, cutanoeus innervation of sole, decidua
Internal - Movements of Scapula, apex and base of heart, 2nd rib
Spotting - whitlow, ulnar claw hand, muscles of locking, coronary sinus tributaries

§  FOR HISTO PRACTICALS:first of all u'd b given an unknown slide (LONG slide/major focusing). U have to adjust it in the microscope. identify and write down the diagnosis k knsi slide ha. then maam samina would sign the diagnosis as right or wrong. If right start makin the dia, if wrong , keep guessing!After drawing u can start preparing the viva abt that slide in ur head or with the roll num near by for e.g if u have epithelium as slide then u ought to knw definition of epithelium, basal lamina , types etc. maam rafea would come to every student one by one ask 3 4 questions n ur done.After this is spoting of slides. 10 slides worth 10 marks. 0.5 for identification, 0.5 for reason.7 marks are for major slide. 3 viva 4 dia. 3 for ur copy. 10 for the slides.So priority while preparing should be first slide identification, then practice diagrams, then do related viva.
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ext: lower end of tibia (capsular attachment and epiphyseal line), dorsiflexion n planterflexton, y planterflexion has more range, derivatives of intermediate mesoderm, why lower end of tibia if fractures is difficult to heal, layer that develops urinary bladder
int: post surface of ulna, anatomical snuff box, insertion of !st dorsal int, radial artery in hand, klumpkes paralysis, fun of pect major, movements of shoulder joint, cadiac dominance, tndon of torodo!

surface marking:dorsalis pedis artery
external:how fibula is different frm othr bones,,ossification centers of fibula,,years of development of ossification centers....!!!
embryo:derivatives of endoderm
internal:marking of upper end of radius,,origin insertion of supinator,nerve supply,,function
identify ulnar nerve frm limb,identify left ventricle of heart,where does the apex of left ventricle lie...!!!
Maam Attiya: Consequencies of fertilization,Difference between mitosis of zygote n general mitosis,Muscles having double supply
Same questions are being repeated. If u get a hip bone, the very first question will be the difference between male and female. Wahi crus penis wala. Joints,types of anastomosis from ga. consequences of fertilization,difference of mitosis,germ layers derivatives,somites etc from embryo. actions of muscles, nerve supply from upper limb. Spottting on heart and lungs, pericardial sinuses from thorax.External: Tibia, medial side k muscles, nerve supply, action, arrangement of structures at lower end of tibia, unki nerve supply, action. Allantois, connecting stalk.Internal: Limb spotting,unhi muscle ki nerve supply and action, heart, left atrium ki blood supply,significance of flexor carpi radialis, movements at shoulder joint,
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Biochem VIVA questions for prof


siir shakeel is asking really easy stuffessential and non essential amino acidsstandard and non standard amino acidsallosteric enzymes and coperate bindingAcidosis and alkalosis, causes
henderson-haselbach equation, Pka ?anion gap
enzyme inhibition
biochemical roles of vitamins
beri beri
phspholipids
steroids and sterols mein differencebile salts
Sir asked me abt GAGs proteoglycans،glycoproteins n bile acid funtions!

external was tough because he asked stuff not really mentioned in te books.
bbut i can only tell what he asked me..
structres of protiens and bonds involved in it
supersecondary motifs and epitope
domains
enzymes inhibitors as

 External asked me abt immunoglobulins,their structure,diff between heavy n light chain structure,bence jones protein,how r they seprated 4m albumin n urine?proteins classification,keratin occurance n amino acid most abundant n it?,AG (albumin,Globulin)ratio,heat coagulation test.
Other question tyndall effect,coenzymes table,suicide inhibihion n allosteric inhibition graph curve with reason(distinction question),cobalamin absorption,pernicious anemia.
external asked me how heam is produced in body tell all the mechanism and enzymes,level of Na in body who it is regulated in body,diabetes insipidus,classification of carbohydrates and GAGS,

 Starch n glycogen structural diff starch n cellulose structural diff,invert sugar with reason,sucrose structure bna k dekhao,what is hysteria,causes ov metabolic acidosis,chemical buffers n how r they written.

ROLE OF FOLIC ACID AND COENZYME IN WHICH IT IS PRESENTROLE OF COBALAMINE AND HOW WE MEASURE IT IN BODY?MYOGLOBIN AND HAEMOGLOBIN STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCEDOES MYOGLOBIN RELEASE OXYGEN AND AT WHICH CONCENTERATION OF OXYGENGLOBULAR PROTEIN AND AXIAL PROTEIN.WHICH TYPE IS PRESENT IN BODY?FORMULA TO FIND OUT WHETHER A PROTIN WILL BE GLOBULAR OR AXIAL?

Km & its significance
classification of enzymes & what is hydratase?
Co factor of carbonic anhydrase & Urease
GAG's , proteoglycan , glycoprotien
significance of SO4 groups in GAG's
How enzyme decrease energy of activation? Mechanism??
Diff. b/w Synthase & Synthetase
Effect of substrate conc. on rate of reaction
therapeutic uses of Enzymes? in myocardial infarction???
Gibbs Donnan equilibrium & its significance?
nucleoside, polynucleotide
Kbi starch aur glycogen khaey hain?? forms??

Minerals,vitamins n enzymes are main start wale studnts jo batch mai hain un k liajo akhir mai hon un se sir carbohydrates n protein n myoglibin etc ziyada suna hain
Serum Calcium level? Clinical presentation of Calcium deficiency

sir shakel ny bht acha viva liya h unho ny mjh sy vitamins ki classificatin, co.enzymes, vitamin.A functions, night.blindness, beri.beri, visual.cycle draw krvaya, oxidative.phosphorylatins k componentsExternal.Names of water soluble vitamins, vitamn.B12 absorptin, functins, disease.

 MAJOR VIVA QUESTIONS.EXTERNAL: all viva wos centred around proteins. started off wth zymogens their examples..? how is pepsinogen activated to pepsin? endopeptidases. examples? exopeptidases examples.? carboxy peptidases? wot are ligases, example.?electrophorosis se related questions.! GIT se proteolitic enzymes.

MAJOR VIVA QUESTIONS. INTERNAL: cytochrome p450, simple proteins, conjugated proteins( def +examples),lipoproteins defination examples. membrane proteins ki nature. LDL,VLDL, HDL, why are HDLs named so? chylomicrons, biotin, biocitin nd the reaction in which it is utilized, same questions with pento thenic acid nd thiiamine. dry beri beri(detail), wet beri beri,allosteric inhibition, niacin acts as coenzyme for?,co enzyme defination.? pyruvate dehydrogenase function, oxido reductases ki sub classifications,def nd 1 exampe each.! :(

Prctcl viva: milk residue n filtrate kaisay banta hai, acetic acid milk main daalne se kia cheez change hoti hai, ph controlling mechanisms in bodyMajor viva Internal: Metabolic alkalosis, Body main Ca ki forms, What is Tetany, Whyit occurs, level of ca in body, Pyridoxine detailed, tb k patients main pyridoxine kyun kam hoti hai , vit E ka name, action, Rancidity, name of Fatty acids,External: carbohydrates classification, which polysacchacaride occurs in humans, where is it located, where is it metabolized to form energy, fats ka energy production main role hai ya nae,How glycogen forms, enzyme acting on it, deficiency of which vitamins causes anemia, how does pyridoxine causes anemia, heme synthesis

 internal= visual cycle why called a cyclic process.....MOST IMP DEFINE BIOCHMSTRY N ITS SIGNFCANCE,..:p,:P,,ENZYMES OF VISUL CYCLE..asked me ka enzyme ka nam lo i said carbonic anhydars he then asked its functn ...etc...then wht r ligases n relation btwenn ligases n lyase...anion gap signfcnce....retinoic acid.n its signfnce....

 internal....FIGLU test, Shcilling test, wernickes korsakoff syndrome(in what people r community), selenecysteine, allosteric effect on enzymes and the reason for the sigmoid curve.
externa.....vit D(production,activation,metabolic role,deficincy rsults, osteomalacia, plasma findings...like alkaline phosphate etc)...whn does acid phosphatase appear in plasma...conjugated proteins...nucleoproteins.
why tetany develops in metabolic alkalosis even with normal Ca level,Ca k amount in body,xenobiotics....
extrnal askd...whch enzymes are increasad in myocardial infarction and their timing....essential fatty acids kahan use hotay hain..baqi q easy thay..
 external = classification of fatty acids,iodine numbr,2 classes of complex lipids having ceramide as their base,lecithins,phospholipases & source of phospholipase A
External : Vit A maintenance of epithelium kesy krata haior Iron ki absorptionMucosal Block theoryserum Ca++ level
internal: polysaccharides, starch n cellulose k dfrnc, glucogen n starch me dfrnc, cardiolipin, glycerol kya hai, sphingosine kya hai, ceramide kya hai, cyclic amp, function, koi lipid jo k secondary messanger(diacylglycerole) oxidatv phosphorylation (def) substrate linked phosphoryltion
external: buffer, how buffers r formed, example, metabolic acidosis and caussof respiratry acidosis and compenation, alkali reserve.....
Sir shakeel: CerobrosidesVit B12, absorption, it's function.Pernicious anemia, why it is called so.Megaloblastic anemia, why it is called so.Physical Findings in them.Intrinsic factor, why it is not digested.Mylein degeneration k effects.

External: Synthesis of heme, it's regulatory enzyme.protoporphyrin ka structure. difference between uroporphyrinogen 1 and 3.Factors effecting heme synthesis.Vit b12, it's chemical name, it's coenzymes and their functions.Schiling's test.
External: Heme breakdown, porphyrias and their types. Mera to itna sa hi viva tha, iske baad usne farigh kar dia.External: Vitamers, Ascorbic Acid and its function in immunityInternal: Km and its significance, Basis of classification of proteins into alpha beta and gamma classes, Steroid and sterol difference, Function of Cholesterol and its forms in body, Bence Jones Proteins, Paraproteins, Selenocysteine, Chiral Carbon, D & L isomers, Dextrorotation and Levorotation, Oxidative Phosphorylation, Complexes, Why is NAD present in ETC and not NADP? Mutliple Myeloma.Heptproteins ,oncotic pressure,Milk alkali syndrome,difference btw coagulation and denaturation of proteins;example of ketoacids,colloid ,types of colloid,protective colloid,chemical test for vit.A












Prof VIVA questions for Physiology
·         (EXTERNAL's QUESTIONS)
*what are the types of T-cells?
*Role of supressor T-cells?
*what's Vaccination?
*commonly vaccinated diseases?
*function of lungs besides Respiration?
*dead space?
*value of anatomic dead space?
*importance of Anatomic Dead Space?
*Role of Nose?
*alveolar ventilation?
*formula for alveolar ventilation?
*functional residual Capcity n it's value?
(INTERNAL's QUESTIONS)
*mechanism of muscle contraction?
*hypertrophy?
*hyperplasia?
*Rigor Mortis?
*Isotonic contraction example in body?
*draw JVP
*what is Shock?
*what are the stages of shock?
*compensatory mechanism for shock?


pysio viva qs. latent period... physiologic effect of acclimatization on body..... types of RNA function of microRNA .Refractory period .Kidney functions.... Functions of all cell organelles ...Mountain sickness ,..action potential nd oxyhemog curves...

minor me external asked about kymography procedure n effects of ions on ncg related to prac.. mam samia asked about abo grouping .. it was the minor prac... she asked erythroblastosis foetalis.. rh genes and the procedure of prac

Draw EcG, plasma proteins functions, latch mechanism, atrial n ventricle pressure curves, all cell organelles, mitochondria function, cell cycle, hyperimea(dun know wats dis), action potential, shock ki stages n treatmentExternal:Identification of O2-Hb Dissociation curveFactors shifting it.Graph of cheyne stoke's breathingTypes of LeucocytesTypes of lymphocytesFuctions of the typesCD4 & CD8 receptorsType of cells paralysed in AIDSBend's
Internal:Cardiac ArrestCardiac FailureCauses of failureHeart blockWenckebach PhenomemonSkin in thermoregulationPyrogens
Internal: functions of cell membrane, biphasic potential, compound action potential graph, physiological characteristics of cardiac muscle, conduction of impulses, characteristics of action potential, antidromic effect External: Identify graph (that was Chenyene Stokes breathing), causes of Cheyene Stokes breathing and mechanism, micturition reflex and nerves involved, events in hemostasis, dissolving of blood clot, name chemicals administered to body to dissolve clot.

Acid base compensatory mechanisms, mismatch of blood transfusion and its immediate effects (on heart and kidney), acclimitization, Graphs (ECG, JVP, cardiac cycle), skin thermoregulation :( hypoxic hypoxia and its causes :/ types of mRNA 3:) urine composition, cardiac output dependencies.......................
Vasodilators like NO, endothelin, etc., Autoregulation of heart...
and the difference between megaloblastic and iron deficiency anemia, plus their effects on mean corpuscular volume, heart rate, etc etc,  high output cardiac failure, cardiac shocks- External
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