Skip to main content

Biochemistry Practical/Viva Questions 2nd Year 2013

compiled by Qudrat Ullah

Major Viva:

External:

mutations.
transition, transversion. 
ketone bodies. normal level.
fate of fatty acids and acetyl coA.
function of lactosamine.
 (jo Mam k zehn mein point ho jb tk aap woh na bolen tb tk mam "OR OR MODE" py hoti hain, she is obsessed with Liver Function Tests & Renal Function Tests)
Galactose metbolism with all enzymes
 galactosemia
alcohol raised in galactosemia?
fructose via sorbitol
pyrimidine names?
orotic aciduria
enzymes def. in O.Aciduria?
Clinical menifestations of Orotic Aciduria?
clincal menifestations of galactesmia?
Liver Function tests?
Albumin:Globulin (A:G)?
why A:G decreases in Liver diseases?
where globulins are formed?
ALT AST and their significance? 
Glycogen synthesis and degradation?
why muscle glycogen can't be used?
Fate of glycerol?
Splicing?
sticky and blunt ends?
broad beta disease?
which step present in DNA synthesis and absent in RNA synthesis?mechanism of action of steroid hormones?hormones that promote glycogenesis?name some second messangers?
fate of acetyl coA?
fatty liver?
liptropic factors?
mechanism of action of liptropic factors?
glycerol ka fate?
condition of increased blood acetyl coa level?
starvation k metabolic effects, seqeuntial?
glycogenolysis promoting factors?
f.a oxidation types, refsum disease?
liver func tests?
juandice?
bilirubin levels?
indications?
dna replication enzymes (prokaryotes)?
splicing mechanism?
Amino Acid metabolism related diseases?
tyrosine derivatives?
HMP shunt ki significance?
difference between NADP or NAD?
uses of NADH (dont mind her ORs!!!)
splicing and its mechanism?
amino acid metabolism disorders?
pyramidine disorder(orotic aciduria)?
why ammonia toxic to brain?
ammonia sources and diposal?
harmones which regulate Blood pressure(epinephrine,norepinephrine,ANP,Renin angiotensin,aldosterone)
normal NH3 level?
normal BILIRUBIN level?
uric acid level?
ketone bodies level?
BMI and its normal range? 
mechanism of splicing?
function and amount of stored glycogen?
disorder of purine & pyrimidine metabolism?
gout & its treatment?
phentoin?
hormone of lipogenesis?
cortisol & insulin function?
cushing syndrome?
post translational modifications?
fatty liver?
how alcoholism causes fatty liver?
lipotropic factors?
mechanism of their action?
lipolytic hormones?
lipolysis?
lipoprotein lipase?
peptide hormones?
cortisol functions?
transcription?
translation?
post transcriptionl n post translational modifications?
promoters of transcription?
fate of fatty acids?
lipolysis?
aldosterone?
insulin?
which hormones inhibit/stimulate lipolysis/lipogenesis?
substrate level phosphorylation?
which alcohol is formed in disorders of carbohydrate metabolism?
Which hormones regulate blood pressure?
How mRNA is synthesized from DNA, which enzymes are involved?
What happens in starvation?
Range of ketone bodies in blood?
What is stored form of lipids,Where they are stored?
Is muscle glycogen utilized in fasting?
For how long glycogen can fulfill energy requirements during fasting?
significance of sorbitol?
Importance of NADPH?
TAG synthesis?
breakdown, site, control, transport?
different lipases?
Importance of its breakdown?
gene mapping?
hormones that cause hyperglycemia and their regulation?
types of hyperglycemia and occurence?
purine breakdown product?
difference between hyperlipoproteinemia n dislipidemia?
lactose synthesis?
fate of glycerol?
mechanism of action of streptomycin?
reverse transcription (full process)?
name the enzymes not proteolytic normally bt become proteolytic when present in higher concentration?
disorders related to pyrimidine degradation?
mechanism of cloning?
vector production?
transgenic animals production etc,
blotting techniques?
fates of glycerol?
Tag?
liver n renal function test?
lipolytic hormones?
ketogenesis k regulation? 
uses of arginine?
a.a producing alpha keto glutarate?
uses of succinate?
starvation? ( glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis),
sites of gluconeogenesis n lipolysis?
duration of glycogenolysis?
types of hyperlipoproteinemia?
diff b/w hyperlipidemia n hyperlipoproteinemia, disbetalipoproteinemia,
most common technique used for dna analysis?
Glycemic Index?
Alcohols that are accumulated in body in -cho metabolic disturbances?
xeroderma pigmentosum?
products for excretion of NH3?
Heme synthesis Porphyrias Southern blottingEnzymes of protein synthesis
gluconeogenesis and hormones related to it?
BP regulating hormones?
liver function test?
all fates of glucose?
what is absorbed from git along with glucose?
how is glycogen stored?
difference between glycogen storage in muscle and liver?
diseases of amino acid metabolism?
 lipolysis?
fate of fatty acid and glycerol?
sources of acetyl coa?
functions of citrate?
ketogenesis?
ketoacidosis?
steroid hormones receptors and mechanism?
which steroid hormones promote protein synthesis?
conns syndrome?
fatty acid fates?
steroid hormones regulating bp?
kidney function tests?
Fates of glucose?
tyrosine metabolism?
what is elevated in PKU (phenyllactate, phenylacetate and phenylpyurave)?
thyroid funtion tests (don't mention BMR since it's a time consuming process, she says. Mention radioactive Iodine instead.) 

Plasma concentration of ammonia
Plasma concentration of urea

Plasma concentration of uric acid
Plasma concentration of creatinine
Plasma concentration of bilirubin. ..
(Must see them from Mushtaq or anywhere)

Urea cycle ke precursors?
Glutamate ki story
Hyperurecemia, its types (primary and secondary), its treatment.
Hyper ammonemia and its types...

alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme and its regulation...
Answer: ATP and succinyl CoA


1.Posttranslational Modifications...Chaperones?
2.Body Mass Index...values in under weight, overwheight
3.Hormones Of Lipolysis
4.Urea level
5.Renal function tests (start with urine analysis, then go to blood electolyte, urea etc)


: Galactose pathway, fate of glucose, fate of pyruvate, hormones involved in protein synthesis, normal level of ketone bodies in blood, ketone bodies icrease in which conditions pyruvate kinase deficiency, which carbohydrate metabolism can result in cataract 

 oxidative deamination, cholelithiasis, cholestrol : bile ratio, insulin and its different effects on different pathways, relstionship with glucagon, urea and uric levels, bilirubin levels, recombinant dna technology.she was very nice
lipases, fates of fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, refsum disease, types of oxidation, lipid storage diseases

galactose breakdown,pyramidins,their diseases types of orotic aciduria,liver function tests,
 mRNA structure , its component unit (genetic codon) , define genetic codon, fatty liver, mechanism of fatty liver, ketone bodies, lipogenesis k enzymes , hormones controlling lipid deposition , glycerol k fates.
level of ketone bodies in body n in which conditions their level rises,enzymes involved in RNA synthesis,substrates of urea cylcle n its defects.What are the different pathways of glucose? Sources of acetyl coA? Metabolic changes in starvation. How does GH cause diabetes?

Internal:  

thioredoxin.
PFK 2.
Glutathione
Thiokinase/thiolase/thiophrase
PK deficiency
Gluconeogenesis.
succinyl semi aldehyde.
GABA shunt.
amino acids forming alpha ketogluterate.
thioester bond.
uric acid normal levels?
purine synthesis in body?
what is AMP?
what is ADA?
ADA deficiency?
why hypourecima in ADA def?
Difference between glucose oxidation and glucose utilization?
Lactose synthesis?
Glactose pathway?
genetic map?
figlu?
Sorbitol pathway when normal and abnormal?
HMP shunt?
folate trap??
omega oxidation?enzymes of beta oxidation?nitric oxide,its types?fates of arginine?glycosylated hb?poly A cap?post transcriptional modification?normal protein level?
causes of hyperuricemia?
alkaptonuria?
ochronosis?
relation between von gierke and hyperuricemia (answer is g-6-pd defficiency leads to high level of glucose6PO4 which goes to HMP, increased ribose5PO4. so more purine synthesis, more degradation. hence hyperuricemia)
carcinoid syndrome.?
ketone bodies?
oxidative pathways of glucose?
fatty acid synthase?
beta oxidation?
aa that form propionyl CoA?
why direct oxidative pathway called shunt pathway?
uses of NADPH?
histidine metabolism?
keto acid met n its cross talk?
thyroid esp reverse t3 n its significance?
cortisol n related clinicals?
aldosterone n related clnicals
normal serum cholestrol?
bilirubin level?
urea level?
creatinine level?
high/low creatinine related diseases?
carcinoid tumors?
non sense mutations?
silent mutations?
interconversions of ketone bodies,with enzymes involved?
Fates of glycineSuccinyl CoA Creatine Synthesis with enzymesAmino acids producing Succinyl CoA 
genetic code n properties?
substrate level phosphorylation and e.g(in glycolysis+TCA)?
ketoacidosis?
RFLP?
Fatty acid synthase enzymes?
PDH enzymes?
insulin mechanism of excretion?
conns syndrome?
what is effect of hypothyriodism on cholesterol level?
serotonin?
cholesterol synthesis enzymes?  
codon its properties?
ketoacidosis its causes?
ketone body synthesis?
DNA polymerase their functions?
silent mutation?
proline derivatives?
succinyl coA producing amino acids?
secondary hyperurecemia?
pyruvate carboxylase n regulation?
NO?
types of NOS n their differences?
synthesis of NO?
names of glycogen n lipid storage diseases?
how can von gierke cause hyperurecemia?
methionine metabolism?
glycogen storage diseases?
diabetes melitis n treatment?
hyperuricemia?
sources of propionyl?
gluconeogenesis regulation?
figlu test?
pathways of glucose oxidatn(glycolysis,glucuronic acid pathway,hmp shunt pathway n she asks fr evn more)?
galactose metabolism and diseases?
catecholamines metabolism?
which hormoones regulate body water balance?
lipid storage diseases?
what is ketoacidosis?
What are normal levels of ketone bodies in blood?
How acidosis develops in ketoacidosis?
Pyruvate kinase regulation?
Different routes of glucose utilization and their Importance?
Figlu Test?
second messengers?
cGMP using systems?
disorders of protein metabloism?
glycogen synthesis degradation?
regulation of glycogen phosphorylase, pyruvate kinase?
BMI?
fate of acetyl coA?
disorder of pyrimidine metabolism?
Genetic map?
probe?
calcium regulation?
can DNA be synthesized artifically?
spindolipidosis?
ketoaciduria?
NO synthase?
Glycolysis n substrate level phosphorylation steps?
ANP nd its role?
cGMP system hormones?
pyruvate kinase deficiency effects?
Enolase reaction and regulation?
fatty acid synthesis?
omega n alpha oxidation?
branched chain a.a and their keto acids names?
What is/are:cDNA,hnRN?
products from tyrosin?
FIGLU test?
amino acids giving rise to succinyl CoA?
Fumarate?
Alpha Ketoglutarate?
HMP?
Cytochrome p450 system?
 glycolysis?
pyruvate dehydregenase and co enzymes?
probe?
pyruvate carboxylase?
LCAT enzyme?
enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism?
pyruvate kinase deficiency?
normal level of cholestrol?
why is HDL called so?
name second mesengers?
transgenic animals?
why is HMP shunt pathway called so?
 pfk regulation?
enolase?
TCA?
substrate level phosphorylation?
histidine metabolism?
guconeogenic amino acids?
DNA helicase?
RNA polymerase?
topoisomerase?
telomeres?
telomerase?
ketone bodies utiliztion?
Gluconeogenesis?
what condition results in elevated ketone bodies and depressed cholesterol levels?
how do ketone bodies cause acidosis?
can acetyl CoA be converted to pyruvate with reason?
Question: What is myeloperoxidase and its function? 
Answer: phagocytosis of micro organisms jab hoti he phagolysosome ke ander myeloperoxide converts H2O2 into HOCL and OH to help destroy the bacteria.
Question: What is Serene hydroxymethyl transferase and what does it do?
Answer: its an enzyme that convert serine into glycine using tetrahydrofolate.
Question: what is NO, types of NOS, precursor of this step (L-Arginine, NADPH, O2)... different roles of NO throughout the body, (answers lipponcot se dekh len)
What is constitutive NOS? (DR SAAB JIS CHEEZ KE SATH CONSTITUTIVE LAGA HO US KA MATLAB HOTA HE KE WO CONTINUOUSLY PRODUCE HO RAHI HE)
*Wohi Sir wohi* (wese ye bhi lipponcot me likha he  )
Question: double/2nd krebs cycle kis ko kehtey hen?
Answer: Urea cycle ko hi double/2nd krebs cycle kehtey hen.... (not sure if it was "double" or "second" krebs cycle. I heard ye Mushtaq me likha he shayad. )
Because one of its intermediates gives fumarate which communicates with krebs cycle too
Question: functions of glycine? Answer: in heme synthesis, in creatinine synthesis, conversion to serine, in purine synthesis...etc ..... Question: Dr saab. Glycine se glucose ban sakti he?
Answer: aaa of course sir... bilkul ban sakti he... koi shaq nai...
Question: kese?
Answer: aaaaaa... sir ban to sakti he obviously. .... kese banti he. ... ye bhi mjhe ata he... ata he sir... bilkul ata he...
Sir: (hint dete hue) dr saab... gluco... neo....
Le me: genesis sir...gluconeogenesis  ..
Sir shakeel: Chal eh 


1.name some @ketoacids...Name their N forms
2.proprionylCoA is the end product of? Its significance...how converted to succinyl coA
3.Malate shuttle, difference between malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme
4.what is ADA enzyme? Inosine? IMP? Uricosuric Drugs...Name? Why used? Colchicine?..

 normal cholestrol level , formation and release of insulin, how hyperglycemia stimula beta cells to release insulin, second messengers, cGMP wala hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide k functions, pyruwate dehydrogenase comples, Keto acids, alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, substrate level phosphorylation, functions of cholestrol, fate of acetyl coA

 alpha ketoglutarate function and sources, carcinoid syndrome, transamination, fates of pyruvate, pyruvate dehydrogenase, splicing, pcr,histidine metabolism, FIGlu test

reverse T3 n signifcnce, statin drugs, carcinoid syndrome, albinism, ketoacidosis y acidosis is caused
level of ketone bodies
ammonia toxicity n ammonia nornal level 

 RNA polymerase its functions, hnDNA , snRNA,its functions ,cGMP (enzym involved in its production from GTP?) ,act as sec messnger for which hormones,

Reverse transcriptase,transamination, oxaloacetate, name some branched chain a-keto acids ,succinyl CoA, which category do CoAs like propionyl CoA n succinyl CoAs fall under? (answer being thioesters).
:uses of arginine n glycine,creatinine clearance,substrates for creatine n enzymes involved,gluconeogenesis n its substrates,amino acids forming alpha ketoglutarate n fumarate,wot r alpha keto acids n their names
Folate trap. FIGLU. Methionine metabolism.
Alcohol produced in carbohydrate metabolism disorder?
 insulin resistance and its normal value???
enzym proteolytc in high conc only..ie..nt proteolytc in low cncn..?

Minor Viva:


FOR PRACTICALS:

 (sir written and performance aik nzr bhi nhi dekh rhy thy and viva prctcl sy zada theme rltd ho rha tha (e.g. bilirubin level k prctcl k viva mein bilirubin level, ddirect indirect ki values, jaundice etc)

*serum calcium estimtion: hormones which control serum Ca,function of Ca in clotting,which clotting factr Ca forms?normal serum Calcium level? in which forms Calcium exists?metabolically active form of Ca is? hypocalcemia occurs in? effect of hypocalcemia? what is tetany? alkalosis causes tetany, why? renal rickets,tetany

*Urine/blood chlorine viva: aldosterone,conn's syndrome,role of chlorine in body,hyperchloremia acidosis...

*Uric Acid:causes of elevated uric acid? reason of hyperuricemia in lactic acidosis? normal level? why males have elevated levels of uric acid? uric acid is a part of which group of metabolites? source of uric acid, Lesch Nyhan syndrome , foods leading to uric acid production, normal serum level of uric acid?
serum uric acid , gout , tophe , normal values of uric acid in males and females ? , why is it more in males than in females (high cell turn over is the probable answer ), causes of hyperuricemia ?

*TAG: hyperTAGdemia,symtoms.cholesterol relation with TAG. normal level of TAG? insuline resistance and its normal value?TAG level raised,whts indication? (ans = obesity ,total blood cholestrol is =hdl+ldl+Tg/5 ...so tag is ib total cholesrtrl level....tag levl is lethal like cholestrol level....tag ↑ = fatty liver = ammonia toxicity n all functions of liver disturbed etc) level of TAG in blood? obesity in TAG, relationship between cholestrol and TAG.
level of tags, its significance, other cause of fatty liver

*chloride in urine:
Normal level of chloride in urine?Is chloride a normal constituent of urine?conn's syndrome?Source of chloride in urine?hormone which control urinary chloride conc. ?

*Creatinine:  what is creatinine?normal serum level?in which conditions it is raised?n renal function tests?

*Glucose:Persn may not be diabetogenic but urine has glucose.why?how can a person be diabetic with no glycosuria? (Ans. patient has his sugar level controlled)
Effect of beta blockers on blood glucose level (it decreases)
"Urea bicycle"
Krebs cycle ko hi kehte hen because of the common fumarate intermediate between them

*Bilirubin: Normal levels? What is conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin? Gilbert's syndrome? crigler nejjar syndrome? jaundice and its symptoms? dubin johnsen syndrome?Types of Bilirubin,Sources in body,Conditions causing increased serum level of unconjugated bilirubin.
serum bilirubin ,, in which case conjugated bilirubin level is raised?? which enzyme is also increased?? (obstructive jaundice , alkaline phosphatase)

*Cholesterol: What is HDL? What are apolipoproteins? Difference between apo B-48 and apo B-100.General: Define titration...indicator (different colours of salt in ionized and un ionized form) 
Major viva ext: mechanism of action of steroid harmones, xeroderma pigmentosumMajor viva ext: what is inosine, ADA deficiency, does PRPP deficiency cause hypouricemia or hyperuricemia, Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome and what is SELENOCYSTEINE..?

hdl lvl, ldl lvl, functions of cholesterol, forms of cholstrl, which f.a esterifies most wid cholesterl 

Comments

Here's more you should read...

USMLE Step 1 Experience by Ayaz Mehmood (Score : 99/266)

USMLE Step 1 Experience by Ayaz Mehmood (Score : 99/266)
Salam everyone, let me start in the name of Allah who’s the greatest benefactor of all mankind. I am going to write a detailed composition regarding preparation for USMLE Step 1. I am a final year student at King Edward Medical University and I took my exam on June 10th. Final year is the year before internship/ house job in Pakistan. I just got my scores: 99/266



Let me introduce some myths surrounding USMLE Step 1 which are especially prevalent within Pakistan; I am not too sure about India because I heard their students typically appear in their final years.


 Myth number 1:Do not appear for USMLE Step 1 within your graduation

 Verdict: Baseless, illogical reasoning

Explanation: This is so prevalent in Pakistan it’s almost pathetic. One of the biggest concerns surrounding our students is that Step 1 is a huge risk to be taken before graduation. Let me put it in another way: Step1 would always remain a risk whenever it is taken, …

Australian Medical Council AMC Part 1 Guide - Experience and Tips

AMC Part 1 by Dr. Asad Khizar Malik (Rank : 77/620) Australian Medical Council  Guide - Experience and Tips
Salam people, let me start in the name of Allah who’s the greatest benefactor of all mankind. Hope everyone is doing great. I'll try to write as much as I can for the people who are due to various reasons more interested in joining Australian Hospitals for post-grad training as compared to the USMLE pathway.

I am a graduate of King Edward Medical University, class of 2004-2010. I did my 6 months house job after graduation in Mayo Hospital, and after that, i gave my AMC Part 1 in November, 2010 from Brisbane. With the grace of Allah, I passed that in first attempt.

So lets start with the discussion here, but PLEASE NOTE THAT IT IS ENTIRELY MY PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AND REASONING WHY I PREFERRED AUSTRALIA OVER USA FOR RESIDENCY.

First thing in mind that comes with post grad training in Pakistani doctors minds is: Which way to go after graduation? That is a very tough decision that is …

FSc Premedical Guide - How to fly high..

FSc Premedical Guide - How to fly high.. Unsa Athar Your 40% needs to be excellent to get into KEMU or  some other good place.
(Dedicated to my teachers who not only taught me the fsc books but also many priceless lessons of life)
(Unsa Athar)
The tree that never had to fight For sun and sky and air and light, But stood out in the open rain And always got its share and rain, Never became a forest king, But lived and died a scrubby thing… Good timber does not grow with ease, The stronger wind, the stronger trees.
Getting yourself educated in the desi manner i.e. through the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education is one of the top most challenges of today’s society. Matriculation seems difficult at that time, but when you enter FSc, you realize that matric was the easiest job in the world.  Those obese books of intermediate part I and part II are the worst enemies one can ever have.  People say Medical is tougher, but I find one basic difference in both. When you enter a medical college, y…

HISTOLOGY SLIDES AND HANDMADE DIAGRAMS

Anatomy/Histology Gallery
Read the instructions here 1st Year

Histology Slides for Professional Exams
Folder 1- Labelled Folder 2 - Labelled Folder 3 - Labelled
Histology Revision Slides Updated (2011)
by Laiba Khalid
Lower Limb Anatomy Spotting Labelled
http://kemunited.blogspot.com/2013/05/lower-limb-spotting-labelled.html

Embryology Models Some models are labelled and others mentioned in comments

Anatomy Museum Models (unlabelled) This album covers Upper limb, Lower limb and Thorax regions of anatomy

2nd Year
HISTOLOGY Diagrams Hand-drawn CARDS 2ND YEAR MBBSThese are hand-drawn histology diagrams by Demonstrator Dr. Shaista (Dept of Anatomy, KEMU) and submitted by Anosha.NEUROLOGY/ Neuroantomy SPOTTING  (LABELLED SPECIMEN) 2ND YEAR  Each structure is labelled and a great job done by Anosha. Neuroanatomy / Brain 2nd Year Important topics by LaibaNeuroanatomy Models Labelled  Gross models labelled by Maryam Shahid Abdomen & Pelvis Anatomy Spots Labelled Excellent job by Maryam Shahid
Anatomy Learni…

USMLE Step 2 CK experience by Rizwan Khan (254)

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST BENEFICENT AND MERCIFUL

     I recently got done with Step 2 CK exam & I want to elaborate my experience and the mistakes that I made during my prep so that any of my colleagues who are preparing for this exam might benefit from them. I wont go much in detail about how to prepare and where to prepare from since it is already highly debated on the forum and in the previous posts but would focus more on my personal experience and the bad choices which I made during the preparation phase.
SELF-ASSESSMENTS AND QBANKS Uworld 74% Kaplan Qbank 69%
Kaplan diagnostics  = 80% (70 days before exam) Kaplan Simulation Exam 1 = 71% (50 days before exam) Kaplan Simulation Exam 2 = 76%  (40 days before exam) Fred simulation for CK = 84% (39 days before exam) NBME 2 (offline) 21 mistakes (30 days before exam)
NBME 4  =    263 (13 days before exam) UWSA =  259 (2 days before exam)
Real exam = 254