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1. Head and Neck


• Pharyngeal apparatus
(including pharyngeal arches, pharyngeal pouches &
pharyngeal clefts)
• Tongue
• Thyroid
• Parathyroid
• Thymus
• Pituitary
• Upper respiratory system
• Face and palate

2. Body cavities 

• Development of body cavities
• Formation of diaphragm

3. The respiratory system

4. The cardiovascular system 

• Heart
• Great vessels
• Foetal circulation and changes at birth

5. The urinary system 

• Development of Kidney
• Urinary bladder
• Urethra
• Development of adrenal glands

6. The male reproductive system 

• Testis
• Genital ducts
• External genitalia

7. The female reproductive system 

• Ovaries
• Oviducts
• Uterus
• Vagina
• External genitalia

8. The Musclo-skeletal system 

• Development of skeleton
• Development of muscles

9. Development of Limbs 

10. Development of Integumentary System(consisting of 

development of skin and its appendages and development of
mammary glands)

11. Special Senses (eye and ear)

12. Nervous system

13. Digestive system 

• Division of Gut tube
• Mesenteries
• Liver, Gall bladder, Pancreas, Spleen


1. Head & neck
2. Brain and spinal cord
3. Abdomen and pelvis


• Digestive System
• Respiratory System
• Urinary System
• Male Reproductive System
• Female Reproductive System
• Endocrine Glands
• Organs of Special Senses


• Spinal Cord
• Medulla Oblongata
• Pons
• Mid Brain
• Cerebellum
• Thallamus
• Hypothalamus
• Basal Ganglia
• Cerebral Cortex
• Autonomic Nervous System

During study of Gross Anatomy, emphasis should be given on applied
aspect, radiological anatomy, surface anatomy and cross-sectional


1. Bioenergetics and Biological Oxidation: 

a) Endergonic and exergonic reactions, their coupling through ATP 
b) Biologic oxidation and reduction, methods of electron 
transferring, redox potential, enzymes and coenzymes of biologic 
oxidation and reduction 
c) Respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation, components of 
respiratory chain, electron carriers 
d) ATP synthesis coupled with electron flow, phosphorylation of 
ADP coupled to electron transfer 
e) The ATP-synthase, their relation to proton pump, PMF, and 
active transport 
f) Uncouplers and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation 

2. Introduction to Metabolism: 

Metabolism of Carbohydrates 

a) Glycolysis 
- Phases and reactions of Glycolysis 
- Energetics of Aerobic and Anaerobic gylcolysis and their 
- Regulation of Glycolysis 
- Cori’s cycle 
- The fate of Pyruvate 
b) The Citric Acid Cycle 
c) Reactions, energetics and regulation and importance of Citric 
acid cycle 
- Amphibolic nature of citric acid cycle. The anpoleratic 
reactions and regulations of TCA cycle 
d) Gluconeogenesis 
- Important three by-pass reaction of gluconeogenesis 
- Entrance of amino acids and intermediates of TCA cycle 
and other nutrients as gluconeogenic substrates 
- Significance of gluconeogenesis 
e) Glycogen Metabolism 
- Reactions of Glycogenesis and gylocogenolysis 
- Importance of UDP-Glucose 
- Regulation of Glycogen Synthase and Glycogen 
- Glycogen phosphorylase ‘a’ and the blood glucose 
- Disorders of Glycogen metabolism (Glycogen Storage 
f) Secondary pathways of carbohydrate (Hexose) metabolism 
- Hexose Mono Phosphate Shunt, its reactions and 
- Glucuronic acid pathway, its reactions and importance 
g) Metabolism of Fructose, Galactose and Lactose 
h) Regulation of Blood Glucose Level 
- Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and their regulating factors 
- Biochemistry of Diabetes Mellitus, its Laboratory findings 
and Diagnosis 

3. Metabolism of Lipids: 

a) Mobilization and transport of fatty acids, tricylglycerol, and 
b) Oxidation of fatty acids 
- Activation and transport of fatty acid in the mitochondria 
- B-oxidation, fate of Acetyl CoA, regulation of B-oxidation 
- Other types of oxidation, i.e. alpha-oxidation, w-oxidation, 
peroxisome oxidation, oxidaton of odd number carbon 
containing fatty acids and Unsaturated fatty acids etc. 
c) Ketogenesis 
- Mechanism and utilization of Ketone bodies and 
- Ketosis and its mechanism 
d) Biosynthesis of fatty acids 
e) Eicosanoids, synthesis from Arahidonic acid, their mechanism 
and biochemical functions 
f) Triacylgycerol synthesis and regulation 
g) Synthesis and degradation of phospholipids and their metabolic 
h) Cholesterol synthesis, regulation, functions, fate of 
intermediates of Cholesterol synthesis, Hypercholesterolemia, 
i) Plasma Lipoproteins, VLDL, LDL, HDL, and Chylomicrons, their 
transport, functions and importance in health and disease 
j) Glycolipid metabolism and abnormalities 

4. Metabolism of Proteins and Amino Acids:

a) Amino acid oxidation, metabolic fates of amino acid, 
transamination, deamination decarboxylation, deamidation and 
b) Transport of amino group, role of Pyridoxal phosphate, 
Glutamate, Glutamine, Alanine 
c) Ammonia intoxication, Nitrogen excretion and Urea formation, 
Urea cycle and its regulation, genetic defects of Urea cycle  
d) Functions, pathways of amino acid degradation and genetic 
disorders of individual amino acids 

5. Integration and regulation of Metabolic Pathways in Different

6. Metabolism of Nucleotide: 

a) De Novo Purine synthesis 
b) Synthesis of Pyrimidine 
c) Recycling of purine and pyrimidine bases (The salavage 
d) Degradation of purine, formation of Uric acid 
e) Disorders of purine nucleotide metabolism 

7. Biochemical Genetics (Informational Flow in the Cell): 

a) The structural basis of the cellular information 
b) DNA, Chromosomes, Discovery and organization of DNA in 
c) Super coiling of DNA 
d) The replication of DNA (DNA dependant DNA synthesis) 
- DNA polymerase, its components and functions 
- Initiation, elongation and termination of Replication 
- DNA Repair, Mutation and Cancers 
e) The Transcription (DNA dependant RNA synthesis) 
- RNA polymerase, its components and functions 
- Initiation, elongation and termination of transcription 
- RNA processing 
- RNA dependant synthesis of RNA and DNA 
- Reverse transcription — DNA synthesis from Viral RNA 
- Retroviruses in relation to Cancer and AIDS 
f) The Translation (Protein Synthesis) 
- The genetic codes and their characteristics 
- Initiation, elongation and termination of protein synthesis 
- Post-translational modification 
- Regulation of Gene Expression 
g) Molecular biology technology 
- DNA isolation 
- DNA-recombinant technology 
- Hybridization, blotting techniques 
h) Genetic disorders 

8. Biochemistry of Endocrine System: 

a) Chemistry, Secretion, Mechanism of action, regulation and 
effect on Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Mineral and water 
metabolism and disorders of various endocrine glands 

 9. Nutrition: 

a) Caloric requirements of the body 
b) Balanced Diet 
c) Protein Energy Malnutrition 
- Marasmus 
- Kwashiorkor 
- Marsmic-Kwashiorkor 
d) Nutritional requirements in: 
- Pregnancy 
- Lactation 
- New born 
- In nutritional disorders 

Laboratory Practicals 

Chemical analysis of Urine-Normal and abnormal specimens 
8. The techniques and instrumentation of clinical biochemistry 
a) Spectrophotometry 
b) Flame photometry 
c) UV Spectrophotometry 
d) PH metery 
e) Collection and preservation of clinical specimens 
9. Estimation and clinical interpretation of: 
a) Blood Glucose 
b) Glucose Tolerance Test (Demonstration) 
10. Determination of Amino acids in Urine by Paper 
Chromatography (Demonstration) 
11. Estimation of various biochemical parameters in blood 
(urea,uric acid, creatinine, billirubin ,Protein, cholesterol and 
12. Measurements of plasma enzymes (ALT, AST, LDH, CK, ALP 
and amylase


 Nervous system 

 Organization of Nervous system Significance of Dermatomes 
 Classification of nerve fibres 
 Properties of Synaptic transmission 
 Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides 
 Types and function of sensory receptors Receptors & 
Neurotransmitters (applied 
 Functions of spinal cord, ascending tracts 
 Reflex action/ reflexes Interpretation of Reflexes 
 Muscle spindle / muscle tone UMN/LMN Lesion-features 
and localisation 
 Tactile, temperature and pain sensations 
Structure of cerebral cortex 
Injuries and diseases of spinal 
cord, Analgesia system 
 Sensory Cortex Disorders of cranial nerves 
 Motor Cortex 
 Motor pathways, (Pyramidal & extra 
 Basal Ganglia, connections and functions Parkinsonism & other lesions 
of basal ganglia 
 Cerebellum, connections and functions Cerebellar Disorders 
 Vestibular Apparatus/Regulation of Posture 
& Equilibrium 
Sleep Disorders 
 Reticular formation 
 Physiology of sleep/EEG 
 Physiology of memory Higher mental function 
 Physiology of speech Abnormalities of speech 
 Thalamus-Nuclei & functions Thalamic syndrome 
 Hypothalamus & limbic System Lesion of Hypothalamus 
 Cerebrospinal fluid 
 Regulation of body temperature 
 Functions of skin Hydrocephalus 
 Autonomic Nervous System 
 Physiology of aging  

 Special senses 

 Structure & functions of eye-ball Intraocular pressure & 
 Optical Principles 
 Accommodation of eye 
 Errors of refraction Visual acuity 
 Photochemistry of vision 
 Colour vision/night blindness Colour blindness, fundoscopy 
 Dark and light adaptation 
Neural function of Retina 
 Visual pathway, light reflex and pathway 
Visual cortex 
Field of vision and lesions of 
visual pathway 
 Intraocular fluids 
Eye movements and control 
Visual evoked potentials and 
 Physiological anatomy of cochlea 
 Functions of external & middle Ear 
 Functions of inner Ear-Organ of Corti 
 Auditory pathway Hearing test audiometry 
 Physiology of smell- receptors and pathway Types of deafness 
 Physiology of taste Auditory evoked potentials 
 Olfaction/taste abnormalities 


 General principles(classification, 
mechanism of action, feed back control) 
Acromegaly, Giantism 
 Biosynthesis, transport, metabolism, actions 
and control of secretion of hormones of: 
Hormonal assay 
 Anterior Pituitary Dwarfism 
 Posterior Pituitary Panhypopituitarism 
 Thyroid gland Sheehan’s syndrome 
 Parathyroid, calcitonin Diabetes insipidus 
 Adrenal Medulla Syndrome of inappropriate 
ADH secretion 
 Andrenal Cortex Myxoedema, Cretinism, 
 GIT Pheochromocytoma 
 Pineal gland Cushing’s syndrome, Conn’s 
 Thymus Addision’s disease, 
Adrenogenital syndrome 
 Kidney Diabetes Mellitus 
 Physiology of growth Zollinger Ellison’s syndrome  


 Functional anatomy of Male reproductive 
Chromosomal abnormalities 
 Semen analysis Male infertility 
 Erection and ejaculation 
 Male puberty 
 Oogenesis and functional anatomy of 
female gonads 
 Oestrogen & Progesterone Female infertility 
 Menstrual cycle Contraception 
 Puberty and Menopause Pregnancy Tests 
 Pregnancy — Physiological changes in 
mother during pregnancy 
 Neonatal Physiology 


Nervous System 

Examination of superficial reflexes 
Examination of deep reflexes 
Examination of sensory, motor system 
Clinical examination of cranial nerves 

Special Senses 

Field of vision by confrontation method 
Field of vision by Perimetry 
Light reflex 
Visual acuity 
Colour Vision 
Hearing tests 
Taste Sensation 
Olfaction sensation 

Frog’s Nerve & Muscle 

Simple muscle twitch (SMT) in frog and effect of temperature 
Effect of fatigue on muscle contraction 
Tatanization in frog’s muscle (Demonstration) 
Effect of two successive stimuli on SMT (Demonstration) 
Effect of preload and after load on SMT (Demonstration) 
Determination of velocity of conduction in 
sciatic nerve (Demonstration) 
Use of Physiograph (polygraph) 
Elicit fatigue in human index finger 

First Professional MBBS Part-II Examination: 

To be held at the end of the 2nd year in the following subjects in course 
work completed in the second year:
a) Anatomy
One Paper: 90 Marks 
Internal Evaluation 10 Marks 
 Oral & Practical 90 Marks 
Internal Evaluation 10 Marks 
 Total 200 Marks 
 (b) Physiology 
One Paper: 90 Marks 
Internal Evaluation 10 Marks 
 Practical & Oral Exam: 90 Marks 
Internal Evaluation 10 Marks 
 Total 200 Marks 
 (c) Biochemistry 
One Paper: 45 Marks 
Internal Evaluation 5 Marks 
 Oral & Practical 45 Marks 
Internal Evaluation 5 Marks 
 Total 100 Marks

In KEMU, Biochemistry marks are 200 like anatomy and physiology.


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