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Pathology Viva & Practical

Pathology Major Viva

It includes 4 vivas, 2 with internal and 2 with external. They will be having specimens and agars as well.

 Maam Shahida (internal) : name tummor suppressor genes, functions, tummor repair genes, bladder cancer k carcinogens, squamous cell carsoma, draw eggs of ascaris, whip worm etc etc, majorly neoplasia nd parasitology, Breast cancer

Maam Samina: (looks at ur internal assesment carefully )calcification, primary nd secondary lessions of tb, carcinoma in situ, congestion, neoplasia ka sab kuch, basically robbins 

External Sir: names of worms, how will u diagnose ascaris inf, teratoma, he had 2 specimens one of TB lymph nodes other ductal carcinoma we had to identify nd tell why we said so,differences between two specimens,  nd prove that both r from same women. T.B ka sab kuch, ( T.B is common in breast aswell as lungs)

External ma’am: very casual, ami abu key barey main poochtey hain, agars nd all tests , compositions results etc. etc... siphyllis, actinomyces, eggs draw karo, duodonale ka cyle, hook worm

External 1 (ma’am)
She has all kinds of agars nd biochemical tests with her. Agars ki identification,composition nd use puch leti hn(A chapter on culture medium in shameem would b helpful fr this) Biochemical tests b htay hn unkay paas aur uski b identification +ve -ve bht puchi hn.Define sterilization
Dry methods of sterilization
Australian antigen,Dayne particle
what is Dracunculus medinensis+pakistan mein yeh kahan kahan ho skta he
Why agars (solidified medium) is used instead of liquid media?- cox its possible to isolate pure cultures/ colonies of miroorganism in agars.
legionella :P itz disease,tranmission
h.influenza.diseases. sattelite phenomenon
widal test,mackonkey agar composition
mucoid colonies? Klebsiella
smallest pinpoint colonies? strep
how wil u tel a child diff btw virus n bacterium? both invisibl to naked eye, virus smaller, requires host
name dermatophytes
antiviral methods of disinfec.. ?
she was askin about some Crimean hemorragic fever jo ajkal aya hua hai... sheep goats cattle r vectors... she was answering most of the weird ques herself :)tst used to differentiate b/w e coli nd klebsiella is motility test. ziehl neelsen staining procedure .. mycobacterium avium causes TB in AIDS patient...rapid test for TB= ans is BACTEC test 

Internal 1 (Dr. Shahida)
Identify model(hydatid cyst)+tell this hydatid cyst is in which stage of lifecycle?
echinococcus granulosus(parts+common name)
characteristics of cestodes
names of nematodes+their common names
Name tumor suppressor genes
identify model of chronic cholecystitis
cells in chronic inflammation
cell derived inflammatory mediators
function of prostaglandins, what is lipoxin
cycloxygenase pathway nd its inhibitors
most common NSAID
mediators of inflammation- acute and chronic
functions of tp53
name of type 3 hypersensitivity+ examples
neoplasia def- polyp, pappiloma, cystadenoma
examples of benign, malignant tumors
functions of cytokines
model of ventricular hypertropy+lipoma
benign tumors and their malignant counterparts
hypersensitivity type3...3 steps..e.g
def.types.mechanism.e.g of hypertropy
treponema pallidum.tertiary syphilus..itz diagnosis
granuloma..in which diseases
pigments.. stains for hemosiderin,calcification,glycogen,fat...
myasthenia gravis is type 2 hypersensitivity
hypertrophy,atrophy....tumor markers 

External 1. (sir)
identify model of acute appendicitis, how would u differentiate it from echinococcus
characters of cestodes
longest parasite?
name protozoans
leishmania donovani(disease,lab diagnosis,he also asked me particular name for its peripheral blood smear test)
examples of sexually transmitted diseases
def of cyst
functions of complement proteins
model of hytatid cyst,which stage,how did u identify/?from where it was extracted?
diff b/w regeneration nd repair
1st sign of cell injury
cardinal signs of inflammation
def ov inflammation
do you hav a cyst in ur body :P..hydatid cyst test aur uski hypersenstivity type 

Internal 2 (Ma’am Samina)
identify model of left ventricular hypertrophy,reason for hypertrophy in this particular case
define hypertrophy
name endogenous nd exogenous pigments
causes of hemosiderosis. Stain for hemosiderin?
heart failure cells
psammoma bodies,russel bodies,leiden mutation,hypercoagubility states,types of embolism,pulmonary embolism,types of necrosis,protein c n s
define inflmation
define congestion, tb lesions...pri n sec where? ghon complex, wat wil u c in apices after sputum coughed out!!?
chronic hepatic congestion.. congestion in case ov left sided heart failure n special stains
repairchronic inflammation 

EXTERNAL 1.  2 models in front of him.. u have to identify them differencs of benign n malignant parasites.. mostly ascaris , entrobius aur is k saath waley.. INTERNAL 1. def. of necrosis  def. frm neoplasia proto n tumor suppressor genes k names Inflammation...define function of APC Differences of necrosis n apoptosis EXTERNAL 2. TSI, Mackonky, anaerobic bacteria , Pthogenesis of e.coli. oxidase +ve bacteria conc. of sugar in TSI U have to identify the agars too.. INTERNAL 2.DR. SAMINA: DIFFERENT viva frm every student... neoplasia being her favourite... name genetic lesions.. what type of lesions do occur in burkitt lymphma  what changes mutations brought in b cells  chronic inflammation granuloma epithelioid cells cytokines that activat macrophages function of IL-12 Opsonization whch part of complement system z responsible for opsoniztion hypersensitivity ROS

Inernal 1:
-adhesion molecules
-apoptosis def
-pathways for apoptosis
-name of death receptor
-necrosis ki def
-proto oncogenes
-classification of tumor supressor genes
-mutations causing breat cancer
-cancersdue to mutations of RAS
-kaposi's sarcoma
-eggs of trichuris trichura and taenia saginata

Internal 2:
-derivatives of arachidonic acid taking part in inflamation
-pathwaysfor leukotrinesn prostaglandins
-name chemotactic leukotrine
-name some prostaglandins

Extrnal 1:
-widal test
-which type of test is this(floculation,precipitation etc)?
-TSI tst for salmonella
-which agar is used for salmonella
-dif bw salmonella n shigella
-draw entaemoba
-draw pus cells
-STDs (sexually transmitted diseases)
-name of clinical sign for stiff neck in meningitis

External 2:
-identify model (lipoma)
-if i say its malignant how would u justify ur statemnt
-properties of malignncy
-identify parasite(ascaris)
-name any other round worm
-diagnosis of ansyclostoma
-define embolus
-sexually transmitted tumors



Pathology Practical

First, you will be asked to write the procedure of either Gram Staining or Ziehl Neelson Staining.
This will be followed by spotting. 20 spots with 2 points of identification. Everyone has to do first 20 as per his 
Then, you have to perform the practical. You are given a slide of urine or stool (mainly urine). You have to focus it under the microscope and draw what you see (microorganisms, casts etc).
Perform Gram Staining.
Viva will be based on the slide u get e.g. if bacteria are present, you'll be asked questions about those bacteria

Spotting
Do all agars, tubes (esr, etda etc), instruments, swabs, biochemical tests & specimens.
 Cholecystitis specimen, Appendicitis specimen and slide Chocolate agar Cled agar Swab stick Anaerobic jar Inoculation loop Calcification Lipoma model Mac conkeys agar Cbc vial 2 hematology slides for identification of leukocyte and its func 27 spots in total. turn.  They tell you to write one staining and give you urine/stool slide to focus under the microscope. If you see needle like crystals, thats an artefact or smthng. Mostly rbcs and pus cells hunay chaheyen. Have to perform one staining. 1 in 6 or 7 had it right. Baaqion ki nai huti, consequences depend on who's 

Viva (prepare from practical copy)
First examiner comes and sees how u focused the slide. For urine, why u see cast cells, tyrosine, phosphate, oxalate crystals, wbc etc. wat is hematuria, why u see blood in urine. Conditions causing hematuria and pyuria
Second examiner questions about staining and also checks your focusing. What is the basic dye in gram staining (crystal violet) why and in which bacteria blue colour seen, questions related to gram positive and negative bacterias; names, diseases, spread, name bacteria which are both rod and cocci
 


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