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Pharmacology Viva & Ospe

Pharma major viva



Chloremphenicol adverse effects
Idiosyncracy
Reason of tardive dyskinesia? Why anticholinergics are not used?
gray baby syndrome? Reason? treatment 
treatment of salmonella typhi
cephalosporins
adv effects of penicillin
managemnt of pheochromocytoma
pilocarpine- mech of action. Role in glaucoma
Beta 2 agonists, route of administration
factors affecting drug absorption
pKa of drug?
metronidazole
Bioavailability
Antiplatelet drugs
Epinephrine reversal 
Atropine like drugs - having anti muscrinic effect (antipsycotics, TCA, anti H1)
MOA of aspirine, its anti platelet effects
Calculation of dose for youngs/infants
Antimalarial drugs
Ecothiophate. use.

drug of choice for pseudomembranous colitis? vancomycin
antagonist of heparin? protamine sulphate
moa of protamine sulphate
antagonist of warfarin? vit k1
why not vit k2?
treatment of barbiturate poisoning
treatment of organophosphate poisoning? what is aging?
what is the other name of alteplase? what does APSAC stands for? What is anisoylation? why it is done?
name the cephalosporin that cause bleeding disorder
moa of atropine?

what is pharmacology?
what is biotransformation?
phase 2 reactions?
acetylation?
hydralazine?
what will happen when there is marked arteriolar dilation?
what will happen as a result of hypotention?
what 2 other drugs are given along with hydralazine to prevent this?
name diuretics
what is the major use of thiazide?
what is its anti-hypertensive effect?
name penicillins
in what form amoxcillin is available in market?
what is its most common side effect?
B2-agonists
name drugs used in asthma
*what is zero order kinetics?define half life?what is half life of aspirin?what will happen to half life if we increase the dose of aspirin?mechanism of action of aspirin?what is the exact mechanism for its anti-platelet action?site of prostacyclin release?most common side effect of aspirin?directions for use of aspirin? (tv mein advertisement mein kya kehty hain wo?..,answer wz empty stomach nae laini)aspirin induced ulcer ka treatment?aspirin COx ko irreversible ya reversible inhibit krti ha?anti depressants ki classificationTCAs ka mechanism of action
NOVEMBER 19
1. wht's superinfection? (Sir wants to hear the word "OPPORTUNISTIC")
2. name the opputunistic organisms causing it. do mention candida along with difficile.
3. beneficial effects of normal flora?
4. Wch vit do they form. (vit K2)
5. The MOA of wch drug involves vit k? explain.
6. Difference b/w warfarin n heparin other than route of admin. ( tell with respect to i-MOA ii-distribution iii-S/E iv-safety)
7. heparin is safer or warfarin? (warfarin is teratogenic) 
first pass metabolism, bioavailability, suprsensitivity, tardive dyskinesias, thiazide diuretics, biotrasformation, antipychotics, thioxanthene side effects, phase 1 2 reactions etc
8.Anti'emetics classification, antinicotinics, suuccinylcholine detailed mechanism of action,
epinephrine 
20th nov '13
some questions asked today were..drug drug interactions,spare receptors,orphan drugs,summation,diureticz,their use in hypertension,acetazolamide functionz,aminoglycoside M.O.A,sulphonamide,cotrimoxazole toxicity,chloramphencol adverse effects,gradeed response,quantal response,propanolol in detail,pheohromocytoma management in detail,uses of cholinomimetic, which one is used 4 bladder,disopyramide,tamoxifen,milk alkali syndrome

-spare recetors
-partial agonist
-steady state concentration
-its clinical significance
-name b1 agonists
-its cinical uses
-diazoxide
-why diuretics and propranolol are used along with vasodilators

First pass metabolism and its consequences or phr us k alternative puchen gy
-change route of admin eg in case of nitroglycerine
-give metabolism inhibitor as in case of levodopa v give carbidopa
-increase dose
-diff b/w tolerance n tachyphylaxis
diff b/w rebound phenomenon and withdrawal syndrome
inverse agonist with example
beta carboline is the inverse agonist ov benzodiazepines... compare effects of these two
skeletal muscle relaxants classification
3 MOA of propranolol as antianginal... 1st is it is beta 1 blocker so dec HR n increased diastolic blood flow to heart
2nd is decreased workload on heart and 3rd is beta2 in skeletal muscle are blocked so they fatigue easily cuz of dec blood supply. this is beneficial beacause it doesnt allow us to do extra work that will precipitatet angina

contraindications of propranolol in angina.... contraindicated in vasospastic angina because all catecholamines in the body will act on the available alpha receptors as the beta rcptrs are blocked. this leads to prominent alpha stimulation and worsening of vasospasm

Pharma minor (Ospe)

Total marks: 55
Copy: 5
8 tables for spotting & questions: 4 marks each
3 tables for viva: 6 marks each
No resting tables

First Dr. Fawad will marks the copies. Then, he will explain the setup of ospe and will split the batch into groups comprising of 11  students each. One group of students will enter the new pharma lab for ospe according to the roll no. The other group will wait for their turn in the old lab.

1. unknown drug k eye p effect likhey thi u had to identify the drug nd give receptors of eye nd their location
2. table convulsions wala of all 3 drugs, nd prove that drug acted on spinal cord.
3. sulpur ointment calculation , use nd direction
4.acute malaria ki prescriptionu 
5.APC powder, calculation, use nd direction
6.spatula , pestal nd mortar identify nd give use
7.cardamom tinture identify nd give use
8.bp ka SD table, wat is SD nd wat is Variable
9. SIR FAWAD: prac kiya tha perform??, which drugs increase heart rate which decrease other than ans. prove that drug used is a B- blocker?? ionotropy ??, drugs having ionotropic action ??
10. Maam Rubina: u should know how to perform the whole prac .. frog illeum wala, she can ask u to perform any step, 10^-5 dilute hei ya 10^-4 , 
11 Sir Riaz: perform corneal reflex, perform conjunctival reflex, miosis nd mydrasis drugs, prove that drug used is adrenaline....



1.identify the salt and give its uses.name the apparatuses and give its use 2.conversions and abbreviatins 3.define suspension and write formule for B. CO3. 4. Formulae of 6 powders of atr. Dip. And directions for use 5.define mode median and signify t test? 6.write prescription for congestive cardiac failure 7.CNS stimulants table. 8.i dont remember 4min for each table. 
Vivas:Rabbit ileumRabit eyeFrogs heart.


1. what is solution? what is percentage solution? give calculations to prepare 0.9% normal saline...
2. give calculations for 0.1%KMnO4 lotion... give directions for its use...
3. prescription for acute bronchial asthma
4. conversions n abbreviations
5. identify specimen (sulphur) n its use... apparatus n its use (dispensing balance and pill tile)
6. significance of T-test give example... derive T from the hypothetical observations of weight...
 (table bnanay ki zarorat nai, supposed value le k bas formula mein laga ker answer nikalna hai)
7. table of effect of Drug A, identfy it (procaine)... name the receptors in the eye along with location...
8. effect of drugs acting on CNS...  how can u confirm the drug is acting on medulla obloganta
 (teenon drugs ki sirf convulsions ki characteristics ka table bnana hai, they dont want time, resp rate, rightening reflux, posture.... ONLY CHARACTERISTCS OF CONVULSIONS....
9. Rabbit eye...     light refulx,
    drugs used for glaucoma,
    corneal reflex,
    drugs causing miosis
    receptors involve in accomodations
    drugs that can cause loss of accomodation or loss of accomodation by any other way... (nerve lesions)
receptors? type? intranuclear ki example?
10. Frog:
     general procedure of doing the experiment
     how can u differentiate from graph that the tachycardia is due to sympathomimetic or parasympatholytic?
     what is chronotropy?
     what is inotropy?
     drugs causing chronotropy apart from ANS drugs...
     by looking at drugs can u identify the drug? ( 3 were colourless, one was light pink, of which i had no idea)
down regulation ov receptors
how to record the amplitude
11. Rabbit's ileum:
     general procedure of the practical
     add the drug,
     record the reading,
     what is ceiling effect?
     what is the significance of sigmoid curve?

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