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2nd Year Biochemistry Viva Questions 2014 Major+Minor




External 
Sir Khwaja from Ameer-ud-din,lhr

 rapid fire...pyrimidine metabolism, LCAT , TCA , regulation of glycolysis....regulation of TCA glycolysis n FA synthesis. insulin functions. pyrimidine breakdown products.Citric acid cycle.PDH complex; its regulatory enzymes and co.enzymes.
Is conversion of Acetyl coA to pyruvate possible. Glycogensis steps.Glycogenolysis steps.pompe's disease.Tay Sach's disease.Von gierke's disease and its types.NOS types. Chlestrol regulatin, Squalene, Lanosterol n squalene mn frq, Carnitine shuttle, Short chain fatty acid metabolism Uric acid synthesis, catecholamines degradation , pheocytochroma, tryptophan degradation, tryptophan metabolism, no.of N in urea.  CPS 1 and 2. Ketone body formation.structures of urea,uric acid. cholestrol normal level. Treatmnt of hypercholestrolemia.functions of Nadph..  : fructose intolerance, alkaptonuria, Mc ardle syndrome, normal level of uric acid in blood.  glycolysis steps. Lipoprotein func n types, hypercholesterol ki drugs at which level they would act, ketone bodies TCA cycle,PDH complex its enzymes and coenzymes..(which one is not a vitamin) insulin mech of action and metabolic functions . absorption of glucose in small intestine. substrate level phoshprylation.lipotropic factors.regulation of glycolysis  HMP Pathway
It's uses
How is Superoxide formed?
Uses of Nitrate and Nitrites in the body
Function of LCAT, Apo E, B, C2   tryptophan met, tyrosine sa kia kia bnta h, hdl ldl ma diff, acromegaly nd gigantism ma diff, protn synthesis, LCAT, conn's disease.  Conn's syndrm
Steroid hrm synthesis
Adrenalin formation frm nor-adrenalin
HFI
Adrenal androgens jst names
 Steps of glycolysis
Steps of gluconeogenesis
Catecholamines
Their excretory product in urine
VMA   Glycogenolysis pathway, zellweger syn, Refsum disease, what is melatonin n production
other questions by him included essential pentosuria, is vit C produced in mammals, achondroplasia, erythropoetin  ubiqutination ,, fructosuria ,, fructose intolerance  fatty acid synthesis+regulation, refsums disease, source of phytanic acid, cushings disease, acromegaly  functions of cortisol , functions of thyroxine , degradation of catecholamines, carcinoid syndrome  External glycolysis steps and regulation, total energy output from glycolysis, LCAT, Transposons, Primase  gluconeogenesis, grave's disease, telomerase, topoisomerase, glycogen breakdown, achondroplasia, difference in HDL and LDL. Apo E function. Uric acid formation:degradation of pyrimidin; level of uric acid:acromegly:creatinism:gigantism  Glycogenolysis, carnitine synthesis, uric acid pathway, management, latacse intolerance, which cells never die, hgprt aprt  -Bht nice person: Extreme Rapid Fire. Glycogenolysis, how vit C is produced in body, HMP shunt ki significance,? cystinuria, homocystincuria, maple syrup urine syndrome, hartnup disease, diff b/w acromegaly and achondroplasia, diff b/w harmone senstive lipase and lipoprotien lipase, how cofee keeps u active. (I just started cofee me caefine hoti h jo phosphodiesterase ko... He cut my ans and asked sach btao pehle se iska ans pta tha na ans? me:yes. *laughter* He: Ab lgta h new question bnane prn ge :D) then he asked Wernike Korsakoff syndrome, Carcinoid syndrome, Thyroxine k functions. Diff b/w Toad and Frog. I said toad bacha sa hota a, frog bara hota a xD *laughrer*. What will be the effect of Thyroxin deficiency in tadpole?
 Trimethoprim
Regulations of almost everything urea cycle citric acid cycle
xerodermaP
Essential pentosuria
Why vit c cant be syn in body
Hurler sly hunter
Transposons
hereditary*galactose*intolerance
Cushing disease syndrome
Melanin ki types
Tyrosine k functions
Transposons ki significance
 regulatory enzymes of
glysolysis
gluconeogenesis
tca cycle
fatty acid synthesis
utilization of ketone bodies  Uric acid formation
Hyperuricemia
Treatment of Hyperuricemia
Urea cycle, rate committed step
Hurlers syndrome
Cystinosis
Cystinuria
Mcardles syndrome
Glycogen
Transposons?
SSB proteins ka function?
Xeroderma pigmentosum?
LH k functions?
Fructose metabolism?
Glycogenolysis, phenylketonuria, carcinoid syndrome
thyroxine func , hypothyroidism, cretenism ,myxodema, thyrotoxicosis, HGPRTase, neroblastoma,pheochromocytoma,VMA in urine
 primase,pallindromic sequences,very long chain fatty acid oxidation,refsum disease
transposons
regulation of TCA gluconeogenesis
diff in regulation of fed and fast state
(wo bacty specific anti dihydrofolate reductase drug , i never remember its name, tri something)
telomerase
carcinoid synd
he is cool.
What is PUF (polyunsat faty acid)
Function of W-3 faty acids
How to form arachidonic acid
COAL transporter
Creatinism
Myxedema features
And other repeated stuff
He's a real nice guy.
primase primer transposons SSB protiens.
creatine phosphate,steroid hormones,bile salts,substrate level phosphorylation,ATP synthesis in glycolysis Essential pentosuria, Maintenance of glucose level during fasting state?,how will you use maltose in metabolism?, vasopressin action of mechanism, Trimethoprim
Fats synthesis , degradation , Glycogen synthesis , Degradation , name the enzymes Active in their dephosphorylated state and Phosphorylated state , Why HDL is good cholestrol Carrier , Fructose Intolerance.
 Vasopressin action and mode of action; fatty acid synthesis

 PDH complex enzymes and coenzymes ? hormone sensitive lipase aur lpl kaha huty fraq kiya ? gangliosidosis? structure of ganglioside?tyrosine metabolism?........
acromegaly and gigantism difference..hypothyroidism..urea cycle regulation..breakdown of catecholamines..
nucleosome , what's made in nucleolus , probe , what is the importance of introns and exons, SNURPs and their significance , how is ascorbate made in lower animals 

Internal
Sir Shakeel

 myxedema , mechanism of action of growth hormone , hormones that work through cGMP, which enzyme is deficient in orotic aciduria
cysteine source..methionine detailed metabolim..homocysteine se methionine bnao.which enzyme..co enzyme..folate trap hypothesis..Types of NOS..iNOS mechanism of action..manifestatios of hypothyroidism..Macroglossia..difference btwn hypothyroidism and dwarfism..kis ki shadi ho sakti h..progesterone functions ..production.. 
Glutamate funtions, ammonia toxicity, cystine metabolism , trptophan metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, methionine metabolism, glycine metabolism, serine metabolism, lysine metabolism, arginine metabolism threonine metabolism, histidine metabolism , decaboxlation products of all amino acids
normal level of cholestrol?normal level of urea?uric acid?sodium?pottasium?calcium?G6P?,its defeciency,what is threonine? non essential or essential its metabolism? what is cysteine its metabolism? what is glutathione? kon sy a.a sy banta? its function?gylcina kaha kaha use huta ? glycine into serine? cretinism myxedema?cholestrol? aldosteron?primary aldosteronism?secondary aldosteronism? function of aldosteron? formation of aldosterone ? hypo thyroidism mein kiya kiya huta ? deletion mutation ? frame shift mutation? allele ? dna polymorphism?hdl?CEPT?
koi cytochroma tha othr than pheocytochroma....steroidal harmones k name....functions of cortisol.....cori cycle....glucose alanine cycle..its importance....folate trape par boht suna.....liver main konsa enzyme hota hay jo muscles main nai hota.......enzyme jo.muscles main hota hay liver main nai.....nd last par ketone bodies k use wala cycle in muscle draw karwaya......(just to chk k bachay ko thiopharz ka action pata hay ya nai.....
what is choline ,sources of urea ,urea cycle sunao,ammonia toxicty me kia hota hy or q hota hy,ketone bodies ki utilization
Cholesterol ke functions, 
Progesteron synthesis & its relation with menstruation cycle, Placental harmones, 
Parkinson's disease & treatment, 
Serotonin synthesis & function, 
Fatty acid synthesis regulation, 
effect of citrate on glycolysis & kreb's cycle, 
how CoA enters in mitochondria? carnitine synthesis & its formula & its inhibitor.
HDL, Kahan banta hai (liver), why is it high density; which apoproteins does it have; how will you make serine; how will u make creatine; how will u make pyruvate from cysteine
 GABA shunt , Cysteine , Tyrosine , Histamine metabolisms , NPN , HDL , VLDL , LCAT , Carnitine structure and its Amino acids, Mutation .
 tyrosine metabolism , tryptophan metabolism , histidine metabolism , figlu test , transaminases significance , ketone bodies , N containing non protein compound
 L.nyhan syndrome...malonyl co.a kasy bnta by...
 SCID ka just pcha k kis ka abbreviaton ha....hypouricemia.....
Carnitine ka naam, albinism vs leukoderma, NPN, iNOS. presumably the briefest viva ever.
TIP FOR THE LAST PERSON : roti pani ka intzam kr k jaen q k internal viva 3 bje k baad hoga.
glycine functions,glutathione,fructose metabolism,galactose metabolism,aldolaaeB,G6PD,glucose 6 phosphate uses...
 functions of cholesterol, steroid hormones name, formation of estradiol, estrogen progesteron functions, corpus luteum, hcG source, placental hormones, What is ADH Its mechanism of action, trptophan metabolism
beta aap laiq bachay ho. Aap se me mushkil sawal krta hn. Jee sir kren. Ye btao. Glutathione kya hota he? Ye kis cataogory me fall krta he (tripeptide) functions btao is k. Shunt pathway ik tou ribose 5P ban ra he. Ik fructose 6P ban raha baqi. Baqi sb jo itnay hen. Unka kya function he?
myelene peroxidase, fatty acid synthesis k 7 enzyme, gluconeogenesis , pyruvate carboxylase ki regulation, carnitine function, acyl coA carboxylase ki product and functions, lesch nyhan syndome , self mutilation ka cause , secondary hyperuricemia , partharmone ka function , gluconeogenesis kis time maximum hoti 
NO
NOS types

PKU
FIGLU test details
Arginine Histidine sun k kya yad ata
Thioester bond
Gilbert Syndrome
Carnitine
Phynlalnine degradation
What is cystinuria
Kernicterus
Cysteine Carboxylase and formation of CoA..
Glutamate Dehydrogenase regulation

Hyperammonemia (Why is ammonia toxic to brain?)
GABA shunt
Urea Bicycle (Fumarate to malate to oxaloacetate and then AST reaction)
Urea Cycle regulation.. inhibitors? Competitive inhibition of which enzyme
Carnitine type=Non protein nitrogenous compounds
Glutamate functions.. how is GABA formed
Threonine Metabolism.. How is it converted to ketobutyrate..
How is ketobutyrate converted to propionyl CoA, nobody has ever told me this.. I said decarboxylase but that was apparently not enough.
Racemase Enzyme ka function..
If there is cobalamin deficiency, methyl malonic acid increases, what effect does it have and why?]
RT3 structure and function ,
testosterone mechanism of action and func,

progesterone genesis
regulation of almost everything
OAA formation 
homocysteine 
propionyl CoA genic AA
heme synthesis 
heme degradation
NADPH and NADH uses and role in energy dynamics
HMP ki different regulated states mein function
cysteine..is it essential or non essential,,serine synthesis,,glycine k uses,, galactose metabolism,,vit b12 k conezyme ki 2 forms or kahan kahan use hoti,,heme k mitochondrail reactions,,isoprenoid units,,odd chain fatty acid metabolism,,name some other odd nmb ov FA alongwith propionic acid,,,polyunsaturated fatty acids k name,,progesterone functions its mechanism ov action,,its sectetion before and after pregnancy,,carnitine ka chemicak name(beta hydroxy gamma trimethayl aminobutyrate)
: TCA energyproduction, processes occuring both in mitochondria and cytosol, heme synthsis, selenocytine, production in body, cholestrol functions,hypercholestremia causes, why occur in diabetes, aspartate shuttle, glycogenesis steps,beta oxidation steps,enolase significance
why in TCA cycle , pyruvate isnt diverted to Citrate and forms Gluconeogenesis ... ( sort of ajeeb qstn ) 

Acetyl CoA levels why increased post prandial n in starvation


Pyrimidine breakdown

Sprue

Cystic fibrosis 

Carnitine structure 

Alpha keto butyrate se product

Difference btween Phechromocytoma n neoblastoma

Difference btween celiac n crohns disease

Progesterone ka influence on PGs of uterus

HCG inject krnay se kia hga

VMA q tst krty , iski full form , action of caffiene on Ph.Diesterase

Mechanism of action of ADH

Nicotinamic acid

Serine ki production

What is trimethylglycine

treatment of parkinsonism : use of carbidopa

thioredoxin ke functions

VMA abundant in what food
cysteine,cystine,glutathione,functions of glutathione,heinz bodies,sources of NADPH,conversion of malate to pyruvate,enzyme,reaction reversible/irreversible?,lysine metabolism,chemical name of carnitine,hypouricemia,ADA deficiency,mechanism of hypouricemia due to ADA deficiency
cysteine synthesis n metabolism, non-oxidative deamination, glucose-6-phosphate metabolism, regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, a-ketoglutarate, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutathione, c-DNA
Glutathione and its funtions?
Creatine synthesis?

cDNA
Probe?
Revese transcriptase?
Deletion Mutations?
Acetyl coA... Pathways for its formation 
It's effects on enzymes 

Phenylalanine metabolism 
Methionine meyabolism
Cobalamin as a coenzyme 
Alpha keto butyrate metabolism 
Aminoacids which make propionyl coA 
Can propionyl coA make glucose 
Effect of citrate on enzymes 
Acetyl coA effect on Acetyl coA carboxylase 
cDNA and its use 
Probes, types 
 propionyl CoA..(sources metabolism function.. coenzymes product?
metabolism of branced chain amino acids
diferance b/w cystine and cystein

gaba formataion
methionine function
thrionine metabolism..
examples of decarboylation in a.a
histidine metabolism..
chemical name of carnitine
funtions and enzymes
citrate regulated enzymes names
can gulucose be formed by succinoyl CoA?
how acetyl Coa affests guluconeogenesis?
vit B12 recquiring enzymes ant its 2 coenzyme forms
Insigs
NeuroT of happiness

Enzymes using cgmp as sec messenger anp details 
Dopamine
Sodium valproate 
Anemia in B6 and vit C deficiency
Enolase ki imp glucose estimation 
Same significance of fluoride presence in toothpaste
Telomerase, gycine k functions.
nucleic acid pathway, hyperurecemia, imp of prpp, hypoglycemia mein prpp ka kam ho ga ya ziada, Hyperurecemia sec cause, leukemia External: Glycogenolysis, carnitine synthesis, uric acid pathway, management, latacse intolerance, which cells never die, hgprt aprt
functions of glutamate
Sources of NADPH and its functions
: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, pyruvate carboxylase regulation. Methionine catabolism. HMP shunt pathway. Beta oxidation, alpha oxidation, phytanic acid. Malate shuttle. Glycogen metabolism regulation. Energy calculation in citric acid cycle. 
 how much cholestrol excreted?? answer was 5%
; ketosis , ketoacidosis, why hypercholestrolemia in dibetes, how will u cure it , how statin drugs act , why fibrates are used , food in which fiber is present, function, functions of progestrone, functions of parathyroid hormone, regulation of parathormone, rt3 ,difference between primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism, functions of Hcg (human chorionic gonadotropin) ,it's significance, causes of goitre....
Synthesis of aldosterone, Conns Syndrome, insig protiens, reverse T3, Dwarfism creatinism causes and differences, malate aspartate shuttle, leukoderma, VMA, how does a cell know which protiens have to be secreted
VMA? its significance? pheochromocytoma,, neuroblastoma,cortisol synthesis, pyruvate carboxylase/? its regulation,regulation of ACC, define gluconeogenesis,.degradation of amino acids(tranamination n oxidative deamination).. most abundant amino acid in body? amino acids which give alpha ketoglutarate.. valine metabolism...phenyl alanine metabolism..fomation of homogenetisic acid..derivatives of glycine..name blanched chain amino acids, GABA formation, decarboxylation reactions during amino acids metabolism
 ATP ,, GTP ,, creatinine, NADPH ,,CPS1 ,, regulation of CPS1 ,, Aldosterone functions ,, cortisol,, hyperaldosteronism ,, catecholamines synthesis , degradation n functions ,, ADA ,, uric acid ,., hypo n hyperurecemia
Ketone bodies ka normal level and ketoacidosis, synthesis of Aldosterone, actions of Progesterone, HcG formation and actions, how does coffee stimulate you? (ans was by inhibiting phosphodiesterase which activates cAMP and hence production of glu etc..) amino acids that form succinyl co-A

other questions asked by him today were Uronic acid pathway, GABA shunt, malate-aspartate shuttle (pg79 lippin), transposons, Thalassemia, Kwashiorkor, Marasmus, calories needed by a 70-kg man, parathyroid regulation, Hypouricemia (not hyper)
Keton bodies 
Ketosis
Ketoacidocis
Point mutation
Mutation types
Frame shift-cystic fibrosis
Thalasemia-mutation
Serine synthesis diff ways pls explain via alanine
Gluconoegenesis through glycerol
Cysteine and cystine me kn beaa he aur is A.A
Ki decarboxl. Se kia bnta and us ki imp.
Other exmpls. Of decarboxl. Of A.A.
Cholesterol regulation
semi essential a.a, cGMP mediated pathways (sctopic vision) , gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis reg, acidic, basic a.a, serine
Gene Mapping 
Gene Sequencing
Southern Blotting
Molecular Scissors
 metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine ( pathways of formation of catecholamines,fumarate acetoacetate and melanin) diff b/w leukoderma and albinism. methionine metabolism..folate trap.figlu test.secondary causes of hyperurecemia..ADA def. THF coenzyme hai iskay enzymes btao.enolase ki significance. substrate level phosphorylation.ketone bodies names and utilization.
cholesterol regulation, normal value, its two forms in body.ketone body utilization. End product of pyrimidine syn, diff b/w alanine n B-alanine, succinyl coA producing a.a, glucogenic a.a, serine production, glycine source a.a, albinism n leukoderma diff, acetyl coA se glucose formation, ADH mech of action how cold affects its secretion, dopa full form, LCAT N ACAT. How Hdl changes to Ldl. Deletion mutation. Cystic fibrosis, molecular scissors, SnRNA...
. Regulation of Cholestrol metabolism.. methionine metabolism, folate trap. Tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolisms
Fructose intolerance; its link with Hperuricemia.es
Relation between hypoglycemia and hyperuricemia. Causes of hypoglycemia. Reactive hypoglycemia. Causes of hypouricemia.what is ADA deficiency. How inosine is formed.what is HGPRT and Lesch Nyhan Syndrome.
yryvate dehydrogenase complex enzymes name plus coenzymes..then substrate linked phosphorylation e.g..LCAT,CETP,..hdl ldl main convert hota hai??...D-amino acid oxidase..lpl is activated by which lipoprotien..same for LCAT...
define gluconeogenesis,glucogenis aa, name aa convrt into a ketoglutarate,ketonebodies,where reaction occuring,name 3 pathways ocurring both in cytosol n mitochondria,precursors for glucuneogenss..
Glycogen phosphrylase, its product, further degradation, glycogen synthesis , substrate level phosphorylation its examples, glutathione peroxidase reaction function 

PRACTICALS

This year practical was taken in two patterns for alternate batches. One pattern was a  practical was given to the whole batch to be written in first 15 minutes. Its principle, procedure, supposed calculations, results, normal range. Then a card was to be picked and the practical specified on it was to be performed and its calculations written. The other pattern was a card was to be picked, the specified practical on it was to be jotted down in 15 mins and then the same specific practical had to be performed.

SERUM TRIGLYCERIDE: Lipid profile, Significance of this practical, Does TG contribute to cholesterol pool ?
 Determination of serum protein.
Determination of glucose in blood.
Chloride in blood. Level of blood urea nitrogen. Level of creatinine in blood. Free and total acidity in gastric juice.
Determination of glucose in blood.
Chloride in blood. Level of blood urea nitrogen. Level of creatinine in blood. Free and total acidity in gastric juice.
Determination of glucose in blood.
Chloride in blood. Level of blood urea nitrogen. Level of creatinine in blood. Free and total acidity in gastric juice.
Name the condition in which there's glucose in urine. (Glucosuria is the right answer. Sir wasn't accepting DM and said that there were many conditions in which there was glucosuria without DM) Cause of diabetic nephropathy.
Composition of Benedict's Quantitative Reagent. Causes behind the different hypo/hyper conditions. Values and Indices. The purpose of control/blank test-tube (To set the zero level) Whether Urease or Uricase being used in the process. Source of and Amino Acids giving rise to Creatinine and category under which Creatinine falls. (Non-Protein Nitrogenous Compound) Bence Jones Proteins
Significance of practical u performed is fav question of sir. 
chloride in urine practical...wat u take in burette wat is in china dish and color ki reason....glucose wale ko mix kr dia is practcl se k ap ne glass tor k kio ni dala so i said k glucose tst m hta h 
 Glucose in Urine. Glucosuria kyu hota (Renal threshold kam ho jata) Composition of Benedicts Qualitative and Quantitave reagents. China dish mn kia dala hai
 Bilirubin. Sir didnt even check my readings. (Last 5,6 students se sir jaldi jaldi me bs ek adha question e krte hn).. 1.Agr me tmhe offer kru k mbbs chor do or main tmhe army me captain bharti kra dun to tm kia kro ge?  2.Crigler Nager syndrome btao or ghar ko jao.
 Glucose in blood. last students of batch honay ka faida k sir kuch b nai dekhtay aur aik sawal puch k farig kr detay. Nephrologist aur urologist mai farq? 

Enzymes aj kisi ko nai aye thay. sir k ques different students se: alkalosis ma tetany kyun hoti? what are cryoglobulins? bence jones? hypo aur hyperchloremia? metabolic syndrome? causes of glucosuria other than diabetes.


Enzymes aj kisi ko nai aye thay. sir k ques different students se: alkalosis ma tetany kyun hoti? what are cryoglobulins? bence jones? hypo aur hyperchloremia? metabolic syndrome? causes of glucosuria other than diabetes.

Enzymes aj kisi ko nai aye thay. sir k ques different students se: alkalosis ma tetany kyun hoti? what are cryoglobulins? bence jones? hypo aur hyperchloremia? metabolic syndrome? causes of glucosuria other than diabetes.
Practical : total and free acidity in gastric juice. 
Qs. Contents of gastric juice. Different pH of different indicators. Definition of indicator.
 Chloride in urine... hypochloremia keh effects , cystic fibrosis and one more which i cant remember
Serum Creatinine
Formation
When increased
When decreased
Normal Levels
Total and Free Acidity? 
Main farq.
Combined acidity kia hoti hai.
Gastric tumour mai free barhay gee yan combined.
If the stomach fails to empty itself. Acidity barhay gee yan kum ho gee? (Barhay gee)
 hdl / cholesterol levels , lipid profiling , fasting time (its 16hrs acc to him) , imp of fasting time, hypocholestraemia k consequence
 Indirect waldenfayer test. I said it is for unconjugated bilirubin and sir went on to next question gilbert syndrom then criegler najar. I was on type 1 type 2 and sir said parhaya kr.
 pocha k blood glucose ki value normal hai ya abmormal.. abnormal then wat will u suggest patient (GTT)
 How uric acid is formed, products of pyrimdine degradation, uricase
Serum TAG: conditions in which serum TAG is high. Why in diabetes? Name an enzyme in lipid profile inhibited by insulin
why there is more glucose in blood ..
DM cushing .
Totan n Free acidity.... whats an indicator...basic indicators k naam batao (ek to yehi hai jo abi kiya hai  ) ...what is congo red? what is titration?
 Glucose urine tests.What is TMG ? Glucose level in different states?
Conditions increasing level? Diabetes insipidus ?Role of ADH Functions ?

Conditions increasing level? Diabetes insipidus ?Role of ADH Functions ?
Conditions increasing level? Diabetes insipidus ?Role of ADH Functions ?
 creatinine practical , its clinical significance
 Total and free gastric acidity.....Combined acids kin proteins sy attached hotay........indicator other than phenolphthalein and topfer's reagent.....Indicator act kesay krty.....
fasting glucose level.sodium level
Serum TAG,what is VLDL?where does it form?formation of LDL...
Urea in blood : 
Urea level 
BUN level 
Kreb's Bicycle
Serum creatinine......
Normal level
Why level is high in males
Hypercreatinism ki reasons
Importance of creatinine
Urea or creatinine main se konsa acha hay clearnce k liye
Urea q nai ..?
Functions of urea....
Serum Ca: normal range, hormones regulating it, absorption from intestine is caused by...different forms of Ca, metabolic active form, tetany, in which case tetany occurs alkalosis or acidosis and why.
 serum creatinine:
source of creatinine
creatine phosphate ka use

hypercreatinemia in ? (muscular DYSTROPHY)
Aur ? kidney failure.
appearance of patient in kidney failure ? Edema.

source of creatinine
creatine phosphate ka use
hypercreatinemia in ? (muscular DYSTROPHY)
Aur ? kidney failure.
appearance of patient in kidney failure ? Edema.
source of creatinine
creatine phosphate ka use
hypercreatinemia in ? (muscular DYSTROPHY)
Aur ? kidney failure.
appearance of patient in kidney failure ? Edema


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