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2nd year Physiology Viva Questions Major and Minor 2014


Unit division was changed weekly
External
Maam Sigbah from Sheikh Zaid,Lhr

Function of somatosensory area 1

Function of saliva
Peptic ulcers ...achlasiaparkinson git motor reflexesaction of cckPUTAMEN AND CAUDATE CIRCUIT  anterolat and dorsal column tracts draW krwaye thay sleep waves and epilepsy waves draw krwayarightening reflexreceptors properties types DCML and anterolateral pathwayreflexes classificationanterior spinothalamic tract draw kraya functions of cerebellem nd extrapyramidle tractGIT harmones,,function of cholycystokinineEpilepsy Spinal shock and its stages Functions of bile saltsIts basis?Types of rigidity? Difference between rigidity and spasticity?athetosis , large intestine , alzheimers Ascending tractsSomatosensory area functionsPancreatic Juicemucscle spindle. Afferent and efferent fibers, CCKChanges in fetus after birth?Functions of middle ear?Functions of inner ear?Areas in body related to control of balance and equilibrium?What is Tone of muscle? Hcl scretion mechnism, aphasia, site of 1st 2nd n 3rd order neurons, fnctnz ov cerebellum  What is difference btween the function of extrapyramidal tract and pyramidal tract? Lesions of tracts ? Changes occur after birth? Factors inhibit the gastric emptying? GH function ? Menstural cycle . Descending tracts..extrapyramidal tracts function..longterm memory..sleep areas in brain..neurotransmitter..functions of colon....difference between bile in liver and bile duct...  Functions of hypothalamus? Functional unit of cerebellum? Characteristics of parkinson's?Gate control theory of pain.....Functions of hypothalamus,Functions of limbic system,Motor functions of stomach...gastric inhibiting factors, types of reflexes, Clonus types of pain, pathway, basal ganglia nuclei, chorea,  Pancreatic juice function, Bile salts functions, Pyramidal tract function and decorticate rigidity.  :Achalaysia ,Ulserative Colitus,properties of receptors and same repeated questions Name Any GIT hormone . Secretin Release due to Fat ?or Gastric Acid ? or both ? Difference b/w Anterolateral and Dorsal Column system . Gastric Acid secretes in how many stages ? name them , Cephalic phase mai kya hoga ..  phasic and tonic receptors, referred pain, dermatome, classification of receptor.trace the extrapyramifal tracts. wrighting reflexs . large intestine . pyramidal tract. hormones of thyroid potent form of thyroid hormones how T4 acts where spermatogenesis occurs role of testosterone in fetal lifecauses of infertility in females,dark adaptation,milk let down,night blindness cause  aldosterone regulation, Thyroid hormone mechanism, causes of sterility in males, testosterone. cryptorchidism   adh function...adisonion crisis... hyper thyroidism ... causes of hyperthyroidism ... causes of hypothyroidism... 1. Gigantism Vs Acromegaly.2. Role of cortisol in inflammation Vs its role in stress.3. Hormonal control of Labor Vs its mechanical control.3. Myopia correction Vs Astigmatism correction.  function of estrogen vs progesterone  calcium regulation....target organs of these harmones.....physiological changes in mother during pregnancy.....mechanism of action of thyroid harmones...... Peptic ulcers ,pH of pancreatic juice ,its significance , parkinsonism , cogwheel rigidity ,lead pipe rigidity corpus luteum functions,corpus albicans. cortisol functions, impedence matching( she had endo,repro ) External : Exophthalmos, Effect of thyroid hormone on mitochondria and carc metabolism. Why profuse sweating occurs in hyperthyroidism. Aqueous humor.  (sensory,motor,git) descending tracts, chorea,cerebellum,nuclei,afferents,function of vestibulospinal tract, stages of deglutition nuclei of basal ganglia , name the tactile receptors, example of a receptor that adapts fast. voluntary stage of swallowing Trace DMC, sleep centers, motor function of stomach, gastrocolic reflex, stages of spinal shock. motor areas of brain...Aphasia and its types ... Referred pain mechanism...Hemiballismus ...abnormalities of taste perceptioninsomnia/somnolence in which disease(endocrine) Ans hyper/hypothyroidim respectively* trace the optic pathway Sites at which lesion result in bitemporal homonymous hemianaopiaIonic profile of Addison's diseaseGigantism. funct of bile salts,mass movmnts,names of phases of gestric acid scretion , topografical represntation in area $1 astreognosis .  cerebellum, inhibitory interneurons of cerebellum i.e stellate n basket cells, law of specific nerve energies, hormones of git, functions of secretin signs of parkinsonism, decorticate n decerebrate rigidity, cogwheel rigidity, UMN/LMN lesions, difference bw flaccid n spastic paralysis.  chalasia, peptic ulcer, hemiballismus, corticospinal tract.  Classify receptorsName fast-adapting receptorsName tactile receptorsReferred PainBrown-Sequard syndrome. athetosis, cereballar functions,achalasia, megacolonDraw brain waves  difference in UMN n LMN lesions, difference in DML n anterolateral system, function of cerebrocerebellum, peptic ulcers, Limbic system components n functions, difference in composition of bile in gallbladder n liver. External aik waqt me 2 students ko sath bitha k le rahi thi'n viva aj. Baari baari questions puchti thi'n. what is referred pain?Brown-Squard syndrome and functions of limbic system. 






Internal
Maam Samia

GH functions, pituitary diabetes, diabetes insipidus, SIADH 
Growth Hormone
Somatomedin C
Levi-Lorain Dwarfism
Sheehan Syndrome
Functions of Placenta
Placental Hormones
Function of Human Somatomammotropin 
:cortisol,mech of action of protien hrmons,dwn regulstion ,baki hormones k recptr kaha hoty, function of placenta , dbl bohr effect  functions of limbic cortex
Functions of cerebellum
Name cerebellar afferents 
Cortical areas and their functions   CNS broca's area function.
Speech pathway from broca to larynx tongue.. Components of speech:phonation articulation resonance plus mechanism
thought process
intermediate memory.
GIT:duodenum functions.   types of G proteins. The stimulus for and ion involved in insulin release. The mechanism of action of any protein hormone.  dwarfism... functions of somatomedin ... cretinism ... glucose regulation and role of liver ... inner ear functions ...
Inner and outer hair cell differences.  (endo, repro,special senses). Functions of thyroxin, changes in fetus after birth, intapleural pressure, changes during pregnancy GH k cartilage pe effect,levi lorain dwarf,hypopituitarism,sheehan syndrome,maternal changes during pregnancy,function of placenta, differences bw inner n outer hair cells : functions of medulla and cerebellum. Spinocerebeller tracts. Fibre passing through anterior commissure. Premotor area, Broca's area  basal ganglia functions,decerebrate rigidity, hemisections at the level, below level,LMN,( mam had motor , sensory and special senses)  concept of dominant hemisphere, motor areas, function of each of them, mirror images, damage to Broca's area, exchange of information b/w two hemispheres through? Which type of info passes through corpus callosum.  Wolff–Chaikoff effect Function of growth hormone
Stomatomedins ,levi lorain dwarfism , sheehans syndrome ,thyrotoxicosis , thyroid goiter ,function of retina , function of bipolar cells ,function of visual cortex ,how many layers ,information comes into which lay
Stomatomedins ,levi lorain dwarfism , sheehans syndrome ,thyrotoxicosis , thyroid goiter ,function of retina , function of bipolar cells ,function of visual cortex ,how many layers ,information comes into which layer , depth perception ,how retina is represented in lateral geniculate body ,   internal assmnt based viva.......descending tracks k name...pyramidal nd extra pyramidal main differences....quardriplegia...its reason....spinal cord cross section above brachial plexs exact answr jo mam sunna chati thin... 
Pyramidal & Extra-pyramidal tracts.
Functions of spinal cord. Functions of duodenum. Functions of cerebellum. Functions of basal ganglia. ( I know, she is obsessed with functions; but then its PHYSIOLOGY, so I don't really blame her  )
Components of speech. Presynaptic inhibition. 
Lesions of UMN/LMNs. Tell me some examples of UMN lesions. Etc etc.
Lesions of UMN/LMNs. Tell me some examples of UMN lesions. Etc etc.
 Difference btw Tonic and Phasic Spasticity
Adaptation and its Mechanisms and examples
Which part of Frontel Eye Field Area Controls Accomodation.  
Adaptation and its Mechanisms and examples
Which part of Frontel Eye Field Area Controls Accomodation.  Ascending tracts, spinal cord function, spinal shock, UMN/LMN lesions, brown seq synd, synapses, types of tactile receptors and nerve fiber type supplying em, epilepsy, hemiplegia. eeg, types of electrode , waves types, functions of eeg, eeg and brain death... dominant hemisphere..causes of dominance.. non dominant hemisphere... arcuate fasciculus... deafness...types of deafness...  speech pathway,arcuate fasciculus,UMN,dyslexia,basal ganglai and thalamus functions, what is cognition, light adaptation.presynaptic inhibitor neurotransmitter.  speech ,fiber properties ,adaptation of receptors,dominant hemisphere and non dominant hemisphere speech memory declarative and non declarative memory function of dominant cerebral hemisphere  addisonian crisis... changes in mother during pregnancy.. cortisol funtion... role of liver in glucose metabolism. amacrine cells and their funtion . ganglionic cells horizontal. later geniculate body layers. function of middle ear..  unction of GH , laron dewarfism,,,,,,,,,,,,,,external: factors for Gastric emptying , parkinsonism , alzhiemer, basal ganglia define , examples of rapidly adopting receptors  -cortisol
-aldosterone
Pregnancy changes.  . Secretin Release due to Fat ?or Gastric Acid ? or both ? Difference b/w Anterolateral and Dorsal Column system . Gastric Acid secretes in how many stages ? name them , Cephalic phase mai kya hoga   Functions and layers of retina , pathway for color vision,diff btw light reflex and accommodation , Myxedema ,role of insulin in body ?   Californian,inner ear,hair cell difference outer &inner intro-ocular pressure, glaucoma, difference between light reflex and accomodation reflex.  Sound direction determination. :Functions of middle ear,Hormones of placenta,Difference b/w human's and cow's milk. What is the effect of ACTH on aldosterone? Name this effect? Posterior pituatory hormones? Functions of oxytocin? Functions of internal ear? Function of utricle?  :GH functions.neonatal changes after birth..ketosis..pituatary diabetes....(internal assessment is imp..) , Cretinism, Acromegaly, lens defects. Changes in fetus after birth?
Functions of middle ear?
Functions of inner ear?
Areas in body related to control of balance and equilibrium?
What is Tone of muscle?  Cortisol inflammation functions  '
 : function of inner and outer hair cells
:harmones secreted by placenta
:light adaptation 
:pressure required to inflate lungs after birth?
Acromegaly and gigantism.
 function of retina,GH,lorin dwarf,posterior pituitry hormones  olfactory memb, olfactory pathway n centre, role of thalamus in it, inner and outer hair cells, ways in which sound intensity is determined, role of testosterone in fetus, menarche, ovarian cycle functions of thalamus functions of limbic cortex Insulin, where it is formed, how the beta cells produce it, wat is the stimulus for it, where are insulin receptors present i.e on cell mem, mode of action. Role of liver in glucose met i.e as a buffer  

 : determination of direction of sound

 : accomodation and light reflex

: function of middle and inner ear
:light and dark adaptation
:fetal physiological readjustments(value of resp. pressuresss)
progesterone and estrogen function
:functions of middle and inner ear
:changes after birth



PRACTICALS:

Vivas were taken by different teachers including Internal, External, Maam Imrana, Maam Amna

 colour vision area in cortex
 tests for color vision.
 difference b/w rods nd cones
pupillary light relfex pathway
. hemianopias
1. name 5 things you will check in motor system examination
2. perform knee jerk
3. what happens to superficial reflexes in UMN lesion
4. different types of tones in muscles
5. name some superficial reflexes
6. name some deep reflexes
7. what happens to deep reflexes in hyperthyroidism and why ?
2. anosmia ?
3. olfactory hallucinatios ki cuases ?
Cerebellum
1. Climbing mossy fibres
2. Crebrocerebellum
3. Output of cerebellum
 IX and X nerves
Function supplies
UMN lesion

Function supplies
UMN lesion
Hearing tests: Type of tests.
Show how rinne's test is done and its significance.
Color vision: problems associated with it
How is color blindness transferred (x linked and autosomal)
Colour weakness
Major: Hearing Tests
What tests did you perform?
Perform webbers test?
Trace the auditory pathway? 
Where is the auditory cortex?
Minor: Trigeminal Nerve
What kind of sensations did you check and how?
How is pain transmitted from the face?
 External : CN XI CN XII 
what's the name of CN XI what does it supply 
Internal :functions of cerebellum 

Afferent pathways 
Nuclei
Part of cerebellum influencing fine movement 
Which tests are done to evaluate its functions

what's the name of CN XI what does it supply 
Internal :functions of cerebellum 
Afferent pathways 
Nuclei
Part of cerebellum influencing fine movement 
Which tests are done to evaluate its functions
External: ophthalmoscope
What is ophthalmoscope? How did u use it? Correction applied? Medical application of ophthalmoscope? Layers of retina? What are different types of cells in retina? What are types of ganglionic cells?
Internal: superficial n deep reflexes. 
which superficial reflexes did u do? How did u do conjectival reflex? Name monosynaptic reflexes. What is consensual reflex? What is jaw jerk?
 Major: Hearing tests..
What tests are performed?
Precautions?

Functions of middle ear?
Minor: Deep Tendon reflexes..
How knee jerk is done?
What is cause of pendular knee?
Effect of Hypothyroidism on Length of these Reflexes?

What tests are performed?
Precautions?
Functions of middle ear?
Minor: Deep Tendon reflexes..
How knee jerk is done?
What is cause of pendular knee?
Effect of Hypothyroidism on Length of these Reflexes?
Ext : visual acuity define? old age? charts for visual acuity? Internal : sensory tracts, pain types and pathway
Major Cerebellum ..... functions of spino cerebellun and cerebrocerebellum,..what tests did u perform and perform a few of them right now.....
Minor CN 5 ..... how did u check for the nerve
major perimertry what are diff feilds of visions .. scotomertria... mam imarana yei puchti hain kse kiya perform etc... perimetry chart apko wo attendant provide kar denge agr use ap khege tav..
minor 5 cranial nerve .. kse test kiye . what is trigeminal neuralgia .. n treatment
Major: summation of stimuli... Performance, definition of phases of SMT, explanation of graphs obtained....
Minor: C.N 3, 4 n 6... Names n supply of nerves, strabismus, how to examine 3rd and 4th nerves...
 Major : Tetanization,explain procedure of tetanization,type of summation , explain graph
Internal :Perform tricep jerk , knee jerk & what to check? ,recombinent effect other name?

Internal :Perform tricep jerk , knee jerk & what to check? ,recombinent effect other name?
Major: Muscle fatigue: explain the procedure, name three sites of fatigue, what is the effect on neurotansmitter in fatigue?
Minor: Superficial reflexes: Name superficial reflexes, their receptors, names of touch receptors?
Major : Fatigue in Nerve muscle Junction . Frog walay saray practicals Attendants khud kar detay hain . Mam asked definition of fatigue . straight line would be below Base line or up ? and why ? Fatigue occurs at which level ? Muscle fatigue occurs because of ? Why lactic acid accumulate during exercise ?

Minor : Superficial reflexes .. Name all deep and superficial reflexes. Babinski sign explanation in children and Adults .

Minor : Superficial reflexes .. Name all deep and superficial reflexes. Babinski sign explanation in children and Adults .
Major(sensory system) external: procedure,ascending pathways, pain pathway, astereiognosis, lesion in SSA 1
Minor (9,10cn)internal: procedure
dysdiadochokinesia......cerebellum histological layers.....Dentate Function......Gag Reflex....
MAJOR:Visual Field,its procedure,homonymous hemianopia..... MINOR:CN-9 and CN-10,Name of CN-10,tests for vagus nerve
 Major: motor function.....mam asked names the descending track
Minor: XI nd XII cranial nerves nd hypoglossal nerve ka damage nd deviation of tounge.....

Minor: XI nd XII cranial nerves nd hypoglossal nerve ka damage nd deviation of tounge.....
Major: perform Weber test for hearing, what is nerve deafness, modified schwabch test 
Minor: what is protanope deuteranope and tritanope, how white color is percieved by eyes?
Cones and rod pathway k differencesColor Vision : Diff btw rod & cone pathway, Types of Ganglion cells, which of the ganglion cells is associated with rod & cone pathway each, 
SMT: Describe the Procedure. Expalin the curve. Numerical Value of Kymo speed, voltage, mode etc ( since I had deliberately left out these details when describing the procedure  )7th CN: bell's palsy, trigeminal neuralgia, how do you check the motor function of facial nerve.
Effect of temp on SMT: explain the graph in detail... muscle contraction mechanism.
Major-Hearing tests: perform webers test, results in normal and abnormal case. how is the voice test performed n how much distance do we take in that. Minor-colour vision: primary colours. Difference between rod and cones. how is colour perceived. Why is the stop signal RED. Combination of red n yellow gives, red and blue give
Muscle Fatigue : procedure, explain the graph, causes , site of fatigue
Superficial reflexes : name all reflexes, babinski sign , conditions in which it occurs, UMN lesions
Color vision : what is color visiom? young Helmholtz theory … reception of white color?
Receptor for white color … 
Is rod the receptor for white color…
Sensory system…
How did you perform?
What apparatus have you gathered? 
Perform test for some superficial sensation on yourself …
Types of pain.
Pain pathways..
Conduction of fast pain
Major: examination of motor system
Minor: examination of 1st cranial nerve
 Major: 2 Successive Stimuli 
Neutral karo
Describe karo

Reason for positive inotropic effect when the second stimulus of same intensity falls in the conduction period?
Recruitment of more muscle and nerve fibers
Aur?
Calcium accumulation
Aur? Temperature ka effect? Beneficial Effect? 
Ma'am isn't that in the late relaxation phase? 
Is main bhi ho ga.
Then I explained the increased metabolism and subsequent temperature increase.

Neutral karo
Describe karo
Reason for positive inotropic effect when the second stimulus of same intensity falls in the conduction period?
Recruitment of more muscle and nerve fibers
Aur?
Calcium accumulation
Aur? Temperature ka effect? Beneficial Effect? 
Ma'am isn't that in the late relaxation phase? 
Is main bhi ho ga.
Then I explained the increased metabolism and subsequent temperature increase.
 Minor: Examination of III, IV and VI
Name of CN IV?
The way its integrity is tested?

Name of CN IV?
The way its integrity is tested? Major: Examination of sensory system of the given subject. 
Minor: Determination of visual acuity of the given subject. 
Viva questions were repeated.
major: receptors responsible for mediating deep reflexes n babinski,s reflex
minor:working of ophthalmoscope
Minor practical : Olfactry nerve examinatn...
trace the olfactory nerve pthway..procedure to chk the nerve..precutions..
Major : mam imrana..examinatn of motor systm..
viva qstns : wht z muscle tone ?? how to determine it...scientific method to detrmine mucle atrophy..pyramidal tract...structure f muscle spindle ..its sensry nd motor supply...st causng muscle contrctn...where does the pyramidal trct end in cord...
CN I examination: Kese kia perform. whats hyperosmia. Motor system examination: what did you perform, what do you mean by tone of muscle, what are different types of tremors.
 Perimetry: how did u perform it, its basic principles, what will be the effect of dark background on visual field of a particular clr, draw optic pathway. CN-V. How to perform its motor tests.


 importance of doing these tests
functional parts of cerebellum
 layers of cerebellum
 nuclei of cerebellum
function of perimetery
. name all superficial nd deep reflexes.
Motor system examination
 Oflactory nerve: . procedure

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