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First Year Physiology Practical and Viva Guide 2014

First Year Physiology Practical and Viva Guide 2014
As always, my wonderful class made this possible :3



AVN delay, difference between fibrillation and flutter, supraventricular tachycardia and its causes, J point, changes in J point in MI, Myosin heads, Latch mechanism, methods of arterial pressure regulation value of Oxygen in all types of air,transport of Oxygen,function of cell and spleen,neutropenia,bone marrow aplasia.  t tubules function, latch mechanism, Ca-Calmodulin complex, when QRS wave is wide?  excitation contraction coupling,latch mechanish,,,RMP.....rigor mortis,,,,,,long term regulation of arterial pressure,,,,,,phases of action potential. value of latent period. plateau action potential its cause. ion channels of SA node.
myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, heart sounds, second heart sound, physiological splitting of second heart sound, control of blood pressure(types), differences between coronary blood flow and systemic blood flow.
 autoimmune diseases with examples , myocardial infarction , healing of myocardial infarction , effect of exercise on infracted heart , stages of shock , at which stage of cardiac output does progressive shock occur ( beta guyton pay jo graph bana hoa ha na wo wali value batao ) , difference between ventricular and S.A nodal action potential , necrosed area in M.I has two regions what are they and further effect on them during extreme activity  Difference between end plate potential and muscle action potential

Blood pressure and its short term regulation 
Supraventricular tachycardia 

RMP, latch mechanism, importance of repolarization, intermediate ways of B.P. regulation
4rth heart sound,what happens if atria fail,output of left and right ventricle , why 2 percent high of left ventricle .

Cause of pleatu formation in cardiac muscles.Mean diastolic vol.Left Ventricular volume curve during cardiac cycle.Draw Right Ventricular pressure curve during cardiac cycle.Cardiogenic shock.Diastesis.Cardiogenic shock.Cardiac temponade.Pre potential.Hyperimia.Splitting of second heart sound.Cause of Pain in Angina pectoris...


Progressive shock.
Coronary arterial regulation, difference between coronary and general circulation.
SA nodal initial potential.
Angina Pectoris. etc.

blood flow regulation, leads, cardiac failure and its effects.. Draw the curve between left ventricular volume and pressure showing all the phases of cardiac cycle. Diastolic pressure of left ventricle when filling starts. End diastolic volume. Ejection fraction. Cardiac failure. High output cardiac failure and conditions associated....av nodal delay, av block , local regulation of blood flow, autoimmune diseases, reynold's number and i forgot the rest
 golgi aparstus function ... factor effecting transport acros respiratry membrane its surface area .... alveolii function
difference bt skeletal and smooth muscle,effect of extracellular Ca++ on skeletal muscle,an auto immune disorder related to this,explain myasthenia ..........jayeeee
types of hypoxia, what do u know bout hypoxic hypoxia, what are codons, jaundice, what is obstructive jaundice, it's other name (post hepatic jaundice), colour of stools in it (stools are pale colored and urine is dark colored), what is pre hepatic jaundice, which type of bilirubin level is raised in it
   Compensated Heart failure
                       how will the decrease of blood pressure be maintained..??
                       role of kidney


action potential of nerve,phases and gates involves in each phase,nernst potential,classification of nerve fibers Cell organelles, dif between lysosomes and peroxisomes, composition of whole blood, what is serum, clotting factors, factors influenced by vit K 
Obstructive jaundice, color of stools in it.. polycythemia ..Hb s,,,,Hb A,,,,,,,Hb F,,,,,,,,juandice plus kernicterus,,,,,,,types of jaundice ,,,,,,,,van dan berg test,,,,non respiratory functions of respiration,,,,,treatment of erythroblastosis fetalisis,,,,,,,,structure of cell membrane. edeme safety factor. resp movement with paralyzed phrenic nerve. lungs compliance. structure of antibodies. active transport and examples. histiotoxic anemia. 

 draw the oxygen haemoglobin curve, P50, shape.

Functions of blood, chloride shift, peripheral proteins their functions. structure of antibody , characteristics of variable and constant portion of antibodies , physiological changes at high altitude , gain of control system 

Immunity ,its types , acquired immunity , types of t cells , functions of suppressor t cells 

Lung compliance , transpulmonary pressure , variations of alveolar and pleural pressures during inspiration and expiration ,
Effect of higher pleural pressure on lung .........oxygen toxicity, what is complement complex and what are imp. Proteins of complement complex, FeV1/FVC ratio ib restrictive lung diseases, acclimatisation ,nitrogen narcosis,features of erhyloblastosis foetalis,krnactirus,difference between lysosomes and peroxisomes,obstructive jaundice and color of stoles in it.

Edema safety factor ki value.FEV1/FEC value.How it differs in obstructive lung disease..Difference between Plasma and Serum.Different methods of transport across cell membrane.How RBCs mature?Non respiratory functions of Lung.

Cell organelles.

Types of ER.
Types of T lymphocytes.
Feedback mechanism, one example.
Type 1 and 2 epi cells.
Physiological shunt
Ventilation perfusion ratio.
Anteroposterior diameter of thorax.

antigen presenting cells, factors on which diffusion capacity depends, structure of antibodies and function of constant portion of antibody..
changes at high altitude.edema safety factor, change in it in chronic lung disease. Lines of defense in body. FEV1/FVC normal value. positive feedback, gain, surfactant, anemia, pernicious anemia, can't recall the resy
What is ER, Cilia (😑 aur bus cilia per ajeeb sa viva liye)
(Wallerian degeneration, venous return graph, cardiac cycle graph, factors affecting venous return, tell me value of end plate potential, excitatory potential, compound potential, ryanodine receptor, calmodulin detail..
functions of presynaptic nd postsynaptic membranes , effect of hypocalcemia on nerve fibers, function of Ca2+ in presynaptic membrane, Reynolds no.
Draw atrial flutter ecg. How contractions occur in smooth muscles lnt. Apnea it's types. Chen stoke breathing it's mechanism in cardiac failure Hemostasis ? steps? pathways? explosive..?
                       lung compliance factors...? age? posture?
                       transport across cell membrane... examples of primary and secondary active 


1) What is Vital Capacity, how to measure it and how does posture affect Vital Capacity?
Pract Viva - What is Vital Capacity? What affects Vital Capacity? How does posture affect VC? What happens to VC in Pregnancy? (Minor - Ext)

2) What is bleeding time, perform test for bleeding time (Dukes Method)
Pract Viva - What is bleeding time? What affects bleeding time? Normal bleeding time? Mechanism of Hemostasis? - (Major - Mam Samia)
--> Practical:1) Major: Platelet Count [Viva questions: Procedure, normal range, what factors increase it, what factors decrease it (do mention dengue fever), why we use RBC pipette for platelet count]2) Minor: Blood Groups: [Viva Questions: What are immediate reactions of mismatched transfusion; what is mechanism of acute kidney shutdown?]
         Minor: Sahli's Heamoglobinometer
                    Viva: Precautions  
                            the amount of oxygen carried by a gram of Hb
         Major: General Respiratory Examination
                    Viva: procedure
                            what else will u feel in palpation..(apex beat)
PRACTICAL.Minor:examination of pulse
VIVA: rate of given subject's pulse............ 
Major:erythrocyte count in peripheral blood
 VIVA: effects of polycythemia on circulation(viscosity and arterial pressure),functions of RBC...   ]                 Practical: RBC count, radial pulse...Viva of practical: function of Rbc, how pulse is found, character of pulse, precautions of RBC count experiment ......! 

Practical Viva (DLC & ABO blood group)

Neutrophil dikhao microscope men
Neutrophilia,neutropenia,functions of neutrophils.
Blood group kya aaya hai? O+ve, Is ka faida? Why transfusion reaction occurs when given to an O blood type person? Erythroblastosis foetalis

Practical : normal cardiogram of frog , determination of ABO , RH blood group 

Viva : internal : reaction occur during transfusion of O+ blood in O+ blood , characteristics of O blood group 
External: speed of kymograph , precautions of NCG recording..

Practical : TLC and ECG(find PR interval and heart rate) 

Viva: internal: condition in which the PR interval increases , what is 1st degree heart block.
External : leucocytosis , leucopenia , where are leucocytes formed, a condition in which leukocytes decrease below normal

DLC & blood group ABO+Rh

Ex. Precautions 
In. Draw neutrophill

Practical:major :determination of ESR, Minor:determination of blood pressure


Below is a list of practicals that will come in exam. There are a few which are not given in your practical nb.
Auscultation of Precordium
ECG (PR intervals and calculation of normal heart rate)
Auscultation of heart sounds
Vital Capacity and Effect of Posture on Vital Capacity
Prep. Of blood smear
Osmotic Fragility
Sahili’s for Hb
Det. Of RBCs
Blood Groups
Platelet count
Bleeding Time
Clotting time
Blood Pressure
Examination of Radial Pulse
Effect of temp on frog heart
Effect of drugs
Effect of inorganic ions
Stannius ligature
Det of resp volume and capacities
Physical examination of the resp. system

Practical Exam: In physio, there is one major and one minor practical. We first have 20-25 min to write both of these. We have to write apparatus, principle, procedure, diagram precautions and supposed readings. After that, the sheets are taken, and we have to do performance. Internal takes viva on major and external takes viva on minor practical.
Viva Prep: Read practical procedure carefully, if there are other ways for performing the procedure like determining Hb, remember their names and a few necessary details. Also, someone might ask practical skill questions like why thumb and lil finger is not used for blood sample, etc. In GPE, remember that the doc stands on right side of patient if he is right handed. And also, do watch diagrams or videos of GPE as examiner may ask you to check something. Other than that, remember the stuff the practical is about i.e. in radial pulse, clinicals like pulsus paradoxus etc.


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