On one day you'll have your histology practical with its minor viva, and on the next gross spotting and major viva.
First of all, the short slides. These are 10 in number, one at each station and approx two mins for each. You have to identify the slide and write two POIs (points of identification).
Each slide carries 1 mark, total 10.
LONG SLIDE: You are given a slide, you have to adjust and focus it in the microscope and identify it, and also draw the diagram.
This carries 4 marks.
Viva = 4 marks.
Practical notebook = 2 marks.
20 marks in all.
Spotting consists of 10 stations. Each station has 4 four spots, each worth half a mark. Total 20 marks for spotting.
There are 2 tables each for Upper Limb, Lower Limb, Thorax and Embryology. One each for bones and radiographs.
10 marks for each region, (30 in all) and another 10 marks for embryology.
5 marks for GA.
SURAFCE MARKING: 5 marks.
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT: 10 marks.
Total 100 marks.
VIVA QUESTIONS 2015
- Internal: chalking on spine of scapula. Lateral rotation of scapula(had to demonstrate it). Spotting on limb-pect major and deltoid. Nerve supply of pect minor. Lateral cord of brachial plexus.
GA and Surface marking(mam mahjabeen): had to mark axillary artery. Saggital plane, aponeurosis examples, parts of axillary artery.
External: vertrebra(typical). Chalking of important points on it. Spotting of right lung. Joint of vertebrae, and the movement at vertebral column. (He made 4 students sit together and give the viva, with cross questioning)
- External askd 2 mark attachments on vertebrae, impressions on lung, askd abt conducting system, sacrotuberous ligament, lobes of lung, bronchopulmonary segments.. Internal made us spot on limb, mark attachments of upper end of radius, askd abt bicep, supinator, musculocutaneos nerve, demonstrate movements of thumb, zona reaction, diff between primary n secondary umbilical vesicle and model of embryo
- External: mark the attachment of vertebrae, types of vertebrae, explain its bony features, popliteal fossa contents, deep veins n superficial venous ma se konsa ziada beneficial ha leg ki venous return ma,:explain it
Internal :mark upper end of humerus, identify structures from limb, origin n nerve supply of teres major, features of the embryo model, maternal side of placenta, difference between amniotic cavity n amnion
GA :cartilaginous joints... Types of primary n secondary cartilaginous joint Surface Marking :sural nerve
- Internal: humerus k upper end attatchments
Nerve supply of teres minor
Cutaneous branch of axillary nerve
Supination pronation movement and its axis
Identification of Abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis
Surface Marking by mam mahjabeen:Dorsal venous arch
Coronal saggital planes definitions
External:hip bone chalking,ligamentum arteriosum and the structure that passes closer to it
Root value of Phrenic nerve
Attatchment on ischial spine
Contents of lesser sciatic notch and those structures that enter lesser notch from greater notch
- External: tibia, side, attachments, menisci functions amd shape, nerve supply of popliteus, root value of tibial nerve, branch of which plexus, dividing point, lung's side, hilum, identify structures in hilum, no of bronchi, sciatica, its cause.
Internal: identify muscle, its insertion, extensor expansion, humerus, shoulder joint, abduction of arm, embryo model identification of points ,diff between primary and secondary umbilical vesicle, lining of umbilical vesicle.
GA: radial nerve, pneumatic bones, joints types and examples.
- Other name for hip bone. Why is it called inominate bone.chalking of upper and lower end of tibia.anserine bursa.what is a bursa.bursa of knee joint.ossification of tibia fibula.types of epiphysis in femur.plantaris soleos .can a person stand if tendocalcaneous is ripped.
Internal: side determination of clavicle,musculocutaneous n,palmar aponeurosis,model of 4th week.teratogenic agents.func of lumbricals.what happens if neuropores do not close
GA basis upon which bones can b classified.ex. of irregular bone.ex. of triangular muscle.ex. of flat bone
Surface marking.median n in hand
- External: identification and chalking of rib, features of rib, how ribs help in respiration, attachment of muscles on rib.
Internal: chalking of attachments on lower end of humerus, spotting of muscles, muscles supplied by musculocutaneous nerve
Embryology: model, structures formed by somite, stages of oogenesis
Surface marking: brachial artery
GA: classification of joints, classification of sutures, morphological classification of synovial joints
- External: Chalking of hip bone, paradoxical movements, intermittent contractions of diaphragm, important veins of lower limb and their importance, muscles of calf, their attachment, function and importance, saphenous opening and its contents, nerve supply of diaphragm, azygous system of veins.
Internal: Attachment of brachioradialis, nerve supply of FCR and ECR, branches of radial nerve, termination of posterior interosseous nerve, structures passing through fourth compartment of extensor retinaculum, function of extensor indicis, cartilaginous joints, function of otic placode.
- External:Attachments of ischial tuberosity...frm where sciatic nerve enter gluteal region...other structures accompanying it...root value of inf gluteal nerve n belongs to which plexus..muscle involve in adduction at hip...type of hip joint...movements at hip joint..wht is lumbosaccral trunk...
Clinical n anatomical significance of STERNAL ANGLE
INTERNAL..Chalking of up end of ulna..elbow joint type...axis or movement at elbow joint..spotng of ulnr artery n nerve..carrying angle
EMBRYO..modle of morula..implantation...whn morula enter ut. Cavity...chnges frm entrance till implantation
- External: attachments of femur, nerve supply of muscles attached to lesser trochanter, pleural effusin, femoral nerve sheath me kyun nai hoti, what is femoral canal uskay contents aur vertebrae ki ossification. importance of line dividing mediastinum into sup and inf parts. Internal: attachments of spine of scapula, abduction at shoulder joint, axillary nerve, umblical vesicle kb bnti hae, diff between primary and secondary yolk sac. name the type of sutures.
Chalking of ischium... explain muscles attached... where does short head of biceps femoris come 4rm? Nerve supply of biceps femoris... Any other name 4 Hip bone? INNOMINATE bone... Contents of Posterior Mediastinum... Can a person run or walk if tendocalcaneus is cut?
Chalking of medial border of scapula... explanation of muscles... Func. of rhomboids.. show mov. of retraction n protraction... muscles responsible 4 protraction...
Spotting of extensor digitorum n ext digiti minimi on limb
Embryo model of Head folding explain... asked if umbilical vesicle at this stage is of primary or secondary type... also asked abt layers surrounding primary n sec umbilical vesicle...
Wht z traction epiphysis? Hw z it developed? Give an e.g of traction epiphysis... types of ossification... e. g of membrano cartilaginous ossification...
Surface marking of short saphenous vein
- External: Chalking on rib, abnormalities of thoracic curvatures (kyphosis n scoliosis), clinical sgnificance of Intercostal Spaces, what is inguinal ligament, how rectus femoris acts on both hip n knee, examples of hybrid muscles in lower limb. Internal: Identify carpal bones, anatomical snuffbox contents, extensor expansion, carrying angle, distribution of radial nerve in forearm, spotting of flexor carpi ulnaris n pronator teres, embryo model of early 4th week, significance of notochord formation, mapping of embryonic disc. Surface marking: median nerve in forearm.
- External: chalking of vertebra, attachments on spinous process and laminae.. ossification of vertebra, centrum, position of apex of lung in full inspiration, pleural effusion, femoral hernia, contents of costal groove, carina. Plantar reflex
Internal: scapula, insertions on medial border, brachial plexus, boundaries of axilla, serratus anterior ki attachments nerve supply n action, pect minor, cutaneous innervation of medial side of arm forearm, cut. innervation of hand
Morula. Ectopic pregnancy
Types of sutures. Example of squamous suture
- external: tibia shaft chalking
spotting of calf muscles their nerve supply , thoracic duct , openings of diaphram
internal : ulna side determination
joints made by it , serratus anterior spotting its function , pronation supination axis protraction of scapula anomalies of placenta attachments
- External: chalking of vertebra, curvatures of vertebral column, associated anomalies, muscles of front of thigh, ossification of vertebra, ligamentum patellae, type of curvatures, hybrid muscles of lower limb, their nerve supply, description of atypical vertebra.
Internal : chalking on radius, pronation, course of median nerve in hand, thenar muscles, nerve supply, cutaneous supply of median nerve, somites, their number, time of development, sclerotome, dermatome, myotome, somatomeres, region of paraxial mesoderm from where these develop, sutures and examples of sutures.
- External:chalking of sternum
Ligamentum patallae,knee jerk reflex,planter reflex,is there any reflex we can test in sole of foot?spotting of heart, sinuses of heat,their significance,type of sternoclavicular joint
Internal:chalking of medial border of scapula,protraction retraction,spotting of flexor compartment of forearm,embryo model,abnormalities of placenta,notochord,its functions,
GA:classification of bones,classification of anastomoses...
Chalking on rib
Asked which joint is made by the head of rib with vertebrae?
How it is made?
Name and type of this joint.
Features of rib
Contents of costal groove.
Contents of intercostal space.
What is plueral effusion
It's method of draining
Recesses of lung
Which one is larger
Which are more common
Then pointed out tendocalcaneon and said what is it?
Name and how is it form.
Why called as tendoachilis?
Gave me radius and ulna asked me to articulate them and that was impossible as radius was of left limb and ulna of right limb
Asked about dorsal tubercle it's attachment. (It has no attachment)
Relation of tendons related to it
Pronation and supination
Which movement is stronger and why?
Implantation of blastocyst
How it occurs
When it occurs
Significance of floating of blastocyst in uterus
GA: relation of growing end and nutrient foramen
SA: Superficial palmer arch
Long slide: thymus
Types of lymphocytes present
Maturation of T lymphocytes
Type 2 epithelioreticulucytes
Pointed on the diagram and asked what is it? It was trabaculae. Asked how is it formed.
- External: Chalk lower end of tibia. What is deltoid ligament? Ligaments of ankle joint? What type of joint is the ankle joint? What are the movements possible here? what muscles are involved in these? Name the muscles causing dorsiflexion? Nerve supply of these muscles? where does it come from? Compartments of femoral sheath? name of the medial most compartment? Femoral ring? Movements possible at the joints between superior and inferior articular facets of adjacent vertebrae? when do these occur? Curvature of Thoracic vertebrae in adults? what are primary curves? Name of the condition in which there is an excessive outward thoracic curvature?(Me: Sir hunch back) Harry Potter dekh dekh kay tum logon ko ab HUNCH BACK hi yaad ana hai. Lateral bend of spine?
Internal: Chalk humerous. Movement by subscapularis? Make shoulder joint. Perform medial and lateral rotation. Which muscles are involved in lateral rotation? Is lateral rotation a part of any other movement? Mechanism of that movement? Nerve supply of Teres minor? Cutaneous branch of Axillary nerve? Cutaneous innervation of forearm? Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm kis ki branch hai? lateral wali kis ki hai? medial wali? Identify stuff on the embryo model. What are somites? What are somatomeres? On which day do the somites start appearing? What happens if Caudal neuropore doesn't close?
GA: Movements possible at synovial joints? Axis of movements? define flexion? How do you classify muscles? Exoskeleton? Os Cordis?
- External:Chalking on vertebra, ligaments attached. Clinical significance of great saphenous vein(Bypass).Joints of thorax, intervertebral discs, movements of joints.Perforators
Internal:Spotting:Extensor Digitorum, Embryo model.Hows umbilical vesicle formed? Difference b/w primary n secondary vesicle.Deltoid origin, insertion, action.Movements of scapula (demonstrate)+chalking on spine.
Surface marking:Deep palmar arch
GA:Bursae, classification, examples
- External: chalking of tibia, locking of knee joint, ligaments of intervertebral joints, direction of external intercostal fibers. ... INTERNAL : chalking of upper end of radius, wrist joint (types n movement) , midcarpal joint, embryo model, chorionic villi n its type, difference between mesenchyme n mesoderm, marking of short saphenous vein, GA: types of arteries, Golgi type 2 neurons, bipolar neurons.
- External;: gross anatomy of thymus, calcanean spur & its teratogenic reason , nerve supply to r8 coronary artery, clinical importance of 2nd rib, clinical significance of apex of lung lying above medial end of clavicle, apex either elevate or depress in respiration, fibula .. All these different questions were asked by batch of 10 students, today-_-..others were quite simple..
- Internal: chalking of humerus upper end, action & nerve supply of latissmus dorsi, embryo model of head folding, which mesoderm penetrates in villi, from which celomic mesoderm pericardial celom is derived, which structure gives extraembryonic mesoderm,, course of radial artery in palm
G.a(mam Mahjebeen ): difference b/w cephalic, rostral, cranial end.. difference b/w dorsal & posterior surface, is there any stage in human's life when we can say there is dorsal & ventral surface
- Internal :radius side determination,radial tuberosity attachment ...action of biceps,movement at shoulder joint,,,ulner nerve in forearm,,,structures supplied by it in forearm,,
Embryo:model showing neural tube and somite,,when caudal neuropore closes,,spina bifida and types...spermatogenesis...
GA:coronal plane,,parasagital plane,,adduction,,
External : chalking on sternum,,developmental anomolies related to it...
- Clavicle side determination muscle attached on medial two third...fascia covering the subclavius muscle..any other muscle enclosed by it..sternoclavicular joint..its movement..type of joint..scapula ki movements demonstrate karo..steps of spermatogenesis
- Nerve supply of pectoralis minor..Internal
Surface marking of great sapenous vein..
GA..bipennate muscle..example..retinacula..papillary ridges..
- Parts of vertebrae..importance of demifacets..importance of spine...superficial veins of lower limb..formation of great sapenous vein..perforating branches of profunda femoris artery..formation of hemiazygous vein..tendocalcaneous its other name..cutaneous supply of heel..External
- Internal: upper end of ulna, spermatogenesis, attachment n nerve supply f diditorum n profundus
External: chalking of shaft of tibia, role f subclavius in inspiration, obturater nerve cutaneus supply..
GA: greater n lesser circulation, any other type of circulation in body? name few.. Exmple of circumpennate muscle
SM: great saphenous
- Surface Marking: Dorsalis pedis
GA: Parts of long bone, Classification of neurons on basis of no. of processes.
Internal: chalking of medial border of scapula,action of rhomboids, retraction,protraction,model of embryo
External: chalking of ilium,nerve supply of gluteus maximus, medius,minimus. Lurching gait,trendelenberg test,pump handle movement,muscles in forced inspiration
side determination of ulna radius. define supination pronation syndesmoses
can primary spermatocytes undergo mitosis ya phir sirf meiosis hi kartay hain?
hipbone and its ossification. knee jerk. lurching gate. heart surfaces. pericardium. conducting pathways. blood and nerve supply of SA node.
- External : tibia , cardiac dominance ,true and false ribs , bronchial arteries
internal : Notochord , somites , twins , conjoined twins ,humerus, rotator cuff ,Median nerve in hand , thenar muscles
Surface Marking: great saphenous vein
GA: Axial line, synovial joint classification , fenestrated capillaries
- External :
mark attachments on calcenum , spelling of trendelenburg , function of anterior cruciate ligament , ligamentum artersosum location function , evertors , joints on which eversion occur , which is subtallar joint , axis of eversion and inversion , calcaneal spur , clinical effect of spur what happens in it , is meniscus regeneratable
Bones of hand name only , movements of thumb , muscles of thenar eminence , adductor of thumb , is aductor muscle a part of muscles of thenar eminence , asked to identify seratus anterior on limb, its nerve , what happens in its paralysis , movements of scapula
Embryo model was related to placenta, different types of chorionic villi , how vessels develop in villi , part of umblical vessel , what carries oxigenated blood .
SA : Tibial nerve
GA : synovial bursa , types , example of subcutaneous and advantetious bursa , complex arteriovenous anastomosis
Long slide psuedo stratified epithelium , what are goblet cells , why empty in diagram , what is their function , where present , anatomical and functional differences between pseudo stratified epithelium of respiratory pathway and epididymus
- External: Hip bone, attachments, related questions, left/ right layrngeal nerves.
Internal : Radius, Supination, derivatives of embryonic mesoderm
SM: Great saphenous vein
GA: Types of capillaries
Viva : Contents of tunica media, Example of vein with longitudnally arranged smooth muscle fibers, contents of tunica ecterna of Inferior vena cava.
*Hip Bone side determination
*Marking on Ischium
*Inferior mediastinum and contents of posterior mediastinum
*Side determination of scapula
*Marking of its medial border
*Nerve supply of rhomboids
*Root value of dorsal scapular nerve
*Cutaneous branches of radial nerve
*3rd week model
*Explanation of its contents
*Types of chorionic villi
*Layers of tertiary chorionic villi
PS: Flexor digitorum superficialis ki attachments sun Rahi hain mam aur upper limb kay joints ki movements...
- Internal : humerus side determination
Attachments on bicipital groove
Structure passing thru it
Pect major origin insertion action
Amnion n amniotic cavity diff
- External : ischium chalking
Hamstrings n their nerve supply
Ossification centres of hip bone
At which age their fusion
- Internal- Chalking the necks of humerus, axillary nerve, intertubercular sulcus, ulnar nerve in hand . hand muscles
Embryo was taken by Ma'am Zahra who asked the sizes of embryos in various weeks, placenta, placental membrane and its consequent changes, head folding, dizygotic twinning , incidence of separate and fused chorions in percentages, changes occurring in 20th to 30th week
GA : Abduction, Types of capillaries, sinusoids, parts of body where sinusoids are found, types of ossification
Short sephanous vein marking
External: Femur lower end marking, cardiac dominance, triple vessel disease of heart, side determination of femur