Difference between hydrolase and lyases, examples..
Urine ph.. Choline ethanolamine structures..
Sir said bachoo GIT tyar kro in advance ..
Glutathione composition, role,..
Fatty acid classifications..
Levels of Na,K,Glucose, cholesterol..
- Essential and non essential a.acids
Plasma levels of Na+,K+,Cl-
- Classifications of lipids & enzymes functions of Phospholipids & cholesterol
Difference b/w steroids & sterols
Difference b/w starch & glycogen
Examples of ligases
Non essential & essential amino acids
Why they are called so
CCK, N acetylneuraminic acid
Protien buffer, blood levels of Na, Ca & plasma proteins
Selenium, macro & micro minerals
- Folate trap.functions of cholestrol.calcitriol.intrinsic factor.nucleosides.role of vitamin A and Cobalamin.pseudo uridine.cephalin and lecithin.trimethyl glycine
- Structure of lecithin and cephalins
Diff b/w dextrins and dextrans with functions
Clasification of amino acids
Plasma cholesterol lvl
Sites of amylase in GIT
Bonds types in starch maltose glycogen lactose
Folate trap... coenzymes of cobalamin
Hypocalcemia causes and results
Cholesterol ky achy kam.
Polysachrides. Classification. Cellulose. Digest Q nhn hta?
Soluble and insoluble fibers? TPP kis enzyme ka coenzyme hen ?
Cholesterol ky functions again.
Osmosis. Isomerism. Inversion of sugar. Mutarotaion. Asymmetric carbons. No. Of asymmetric carbons in glucose,fructose.
Glucose ka formula.
Cellulose ki linkages. Functions. Dietary fibers. Soluble nd insoluble. Vit b12 ki absorption and transport.
What is uridine?
What is uracil?
What is coenzyme?
Nad is made of which vitamin?
Good and bad cholesterol
Essential amino acids
What is alanine
- Internal:difference between maltose and isomaltose.linkage of maltose.glaiden.milk protein.egg protein.sodium level.glucose level.calcium level.cholesterol level.aviden.total body protein..derived carbohydrates
classification of fatty acids..
Essential fatty acids..
Omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids..
Phospholipids and their functions..
Chemical name of surfactant and trimethyl etanolamine..
Functions of choline..
Name of Plasma proteins..
Difference between globulins and globins..
Reason behind neurological disorders in pernicious anemia..
Role of methionine in synthesis of choline..
Plasma calcium level &its regulation
Phospholipids name & their functions
- External: what are enzymes, their mechanism of action, how do they reduce activation energy, inhibitors, types of inhibitors, competitive inhibitor and its example from daily life. fat soluble vitamins. vitamin d. its absorption and activation. rickets. Internal: Suicide inhibition and its example ( sir wanted to hear the words " Continuous inhibiton". example is Allopurinol for xanthine oxidase). Alkaline phosphatase and its reaction. Alanine amino transferase and its reaction. What is alanine. name some ketoacids. non essential amino acids. example of formation of non essential amino acid from essential amino acid. ( tyrosine from phenylalanine. this is given in oxygenases)
Complexes of respiratory chain. Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation.Function of cytochrome oxidase. Protein digestion. Pellagra disease(which type of dermatitis occurs). Difference between sterols and steroids, examples of steroids. Functions of albumin, deficiency of albumin.
Function of albumin
Vitamin E(types of tocopherol), functions
Non essential fatty acids
Non standard amino acids
(Why non standard amino acids are not the part of protein molecules)
Isozymes, Isozymes of Alkaline Phosphatase,
Disease in which Acid Phosphatase is decreased.
Mechanism of ES complex,
How enzyme lowers the activation energy, explain mechanism, Enzyme inhibitors, Drugs as Inhibitors
Allopurinol inhibits which enzyme.
Cholesterol plasma level, good functions of Cholesterol
How cholesterol transports fatty acids,
Apoprotein of chylomicron,
Why lipids are combined with proteins for its transport,
GAGs, Iduronic Acid, Epimerism,
Alkaline Tide !
- External: Classification of lipids, derived lipids, eicosanoids, prostaglandins, immunoglobulins , names of immunoglobulins, names of heavy and light chains of immunoglobulins, their structures and also functions of ascorbate
and Internal viva was at its weirdest best because nothing substantial was asked : Just he asked me crystalloids, colloids, dialysis mechanism, semi permeable membrane passes what , coenzymes with 3 examples and coenzyme formed by Folate!
- External: Carbs digestion and absorption.
Name water soluble vitamins.
Coenzyme of pantothenic acid.
Function of pantothenic acid.
Internal: Name fatty acids.
Name essential fatty acids.
Why are they called so.
Name essential amino acids.
Is glycine essential or not.
Name ketoacids (not ketone bodies).
What is transaminase.
Name its coenzyme.
Classification of carbs,epimers,mutarotation, mutarotation value of glucose,water soluble vitamins ,ascorbic acid
Alkaline phosphatase,classification of enzymes , pyridoxine, what is dopa,essential non essential amino acids,beta alanine and non standard amino acids , folate trap ,vit.B12
- External :
Heme containing compounds in body
Role of zinc in body
Shakeel sb :
Names of fat water soluble vitamins
Coemzyme of biotin
P.S aesa viva sirf last 3 ya 4 roll no.s ka e hona h
- enzyme and catalyst dif, isoenyme example, vit, K and E details
- External :
pH, how to measure, ph metre principle, folic acid cobalamine source, clinical difference in anemias cause by both, test for checking their deficiencies, acidosis alkalosis types, respiratory alkalosis reasons , karpese test (not sure about name) he was not following mushtaq and even didn't agree on somethings written in mushtaq
What is Lysine, name basic AA, histidine buffer action,write Hendresen equation, write buffer pairs for hb buffer and plasma buffer, draw lineweaver graph for non competitive, allosteric inhibition, graph type for allosteric and in which other case that graph is present, ribozymes and examples, vit K, purines, pyramidines, pyramidines in DNA, bence jones, uridine, bile salts, Bohr's effect
composition of gastric juice. Mechanism of secretion of HCl. pH of stomach. What is omaga 6 & omaga3 family. Sources of omaga 3 family. Essential fatty acids.
Follat trap. Pseudouridine. Osmolarity. FIGULLU TEST. Coenzymes of cobalamine. Fatty acid clasification. Histidine? Why histidine is semiessential. Why megaloblasts r formed in B12 deficiency. Why pernicious anemia is caled pernicious. How it develops?
- External: classification of carbs, homopolysaccharides, uses of dextrans, role of vit. D and osteomalacia
Internal: glycoproteins, immunoglobulins and their structures, albumin level and functions, non essential n non standard amino acids, decarboxylation of L-dopa to dopamine, cholesterol level and iske bure kam.. What are semi essential amino acids...
What is protein?
What is amino acid?
Classification of amino acids
Example of alpha and non-alpha non-standard amino acids
What is enzyme?
What is isoenzyme? Give example
Fat soluble vitamins
Functions of vitamin K, Occurrence of vitamin K, Normal forms, Deficiency, Vitamin K-3
Difference between nucleoside and nucleotide
Nucleosides and nucleotides of adenin, thymine and uracil
Cholestrol k achy achy kaam
What is folic acid? Its coenzyme, its reaction and enzyme.
- External :
- Clalssify Proteins
What r derived proteins
How proteins r denatured
Bonds broken during denaturation
Breaking of Peptide and Di-sulfide bonds
and Groups attached in Vit.K(1,2 & 3)
Cholestrol k ache ache kaam
Dietry fibres and it's functions
Mutarotation and It's value of glucose
MOST IMP :-Anion Gap
- External:Classification of carbs,names of water soluble vitamins,functions of vit C
Internal:Betaine,myoinositol,phospholipids,diff b/w cephalins n plasmalogens,invert sugar,why histidine is semi essential,cardiolipin n its functions.
- Internal: name nucleotide .. what is nucleotide.. name amino acids ... histidine is good buffer , why.. pk values of histidine... imp of imidazole ring in histidine. .. chemical buffer of body... write protein buffer. Write handerson equation
External: digestion and absorption of carbohydrate. Vitamin c roles... diteray source of vitamin C.. mucopolysaccharides
mutarotation, causes, number of chiral carbons in glucose, composition of saliva, secreters, pancrearic enzymes, non-competitive inhibition, allosteric inhibition, type of curve, present in which other compound, cause of co-operative binding, inulin, lactose.
Classify lipids, difference between waxes and fats, types of fatty acids, examples, omega family, functions of omega 3, sources of omega 3, vitamins present in fish oil, functions of vitamin A, explain formation of 11-cis retinal, diseases caused by deficiency of vitamin A.
- Internal: cholesterol, gastrin, bile, saliva, anion gap, hyperchloremic acidosis, uridine n pseudouridine, nucleosides, DNA n RNA, tRNA. Vitamin C. Steroid hormones. Small nuclear RNA, micro RNA.
External: ph of lysozymes. Where are they? Why is its ph acidic? What is its advantage? What's significance of acidic ph in blood plasma? N so much about ph.
Vitamin A. Visual cycle. Role of zinc in visual cycle.
Bile. Bile salts. Colour of bile...Why is it so?
- Internal: Vit B12, folate trap, vit B6 ka coenzyme, GABA kese bnta ha, DOPA kia ha, aromatic essential and aromatic non essential, why is it non essential, crystalloids and colloids, role of crystalloids in osmotic pressure, how does albumin act as a carrier protein, what does it carry and HOWW. Betaine kia ha, kesay bnta ha.
Phospholipids, plasmalogen aur cephalin me structural difference, mutarotation.
External: Fatty acid kia ha, rancidity, anti oxidant enzymes btao. Glutatione peroxidase ka role. Thiamine kia ha, beri beri ki types aur wernicke's korsakoff syndrome kia ha.
why is there polyneuropathy in pernicious anemia. what are lecithins and glycolipids.
classify proteins. what is denaturation. what are motifs and domains.
- INTERNAL:hydrolytic products of starch...bnd in isomaltose...othr eg of 1-6 linkages...beta 1-4 linkage..albuminoids...cobalamine coenzyme...why neurological in pernicious anemia...GAGs..name Phospholipids...glucoronic acid n function..source of glycerol (glyceraldehyde)...mutarotation...ask how the variation of alpha n beta form is drawn (above n below plane..)...anomer...name some conjugate protein...metall activated protein...amphiphatic compound(both polar n non-polar parts) n eg...
[Other Q..lipoic acid (vitamer)..pentoic acid..tautomerism (zwitter ion)..arms ot tRNA...]
EXTERNAL:pellegra...ots dermatitis type (photosensitive)..whole body affected or sm specific areas (back of hands n neck)..caslis necklace...
Classification of lipids...what are simple lipids...diff btw the two types of simple lipids
Def of density...value of water..(fats are lighter than wtr n proteins are heavier )
- Internal: cholestrol k achy kam, examples of steroids, linkages in carbs, lactose....
External: coenzyme def. nd diff b/w cofactor nd coenzyme, example of coenzyme, phospholipids, surfactant, composition of bile, bile pigments, functions of thiamine
- INTERNAL: what is maltose?
Name some buffers in the body.
What are basic amino acids?
It is said some proteins which have histidine are good buffers. Why?
What is metabolic acidosis?
Give its causes?
Give causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis?
Written mn pbq ka ans kia likha?
What is respiratory alkalosis?
Give its causes?
What is pka?
What is a good buffer?
Classify polysaccharides. What are GAGs? What are Proteoglycans?
What are functions of proteoglycans?
EXTERNAL: what are enzymes?
How they help lower activation energy?
What are proenzymes?
Why only proteases are potentially damaging not lipases?
Give tharapeutic applications of enzymes?
What is ascorbic acid?
Whts gastrin? Its imp role... increases HCl amount in gastric juice... pseudo uridine... sulphur containing Amino acids... CCK n its func....
Asked abt PBQ in proff ppr... Resp Alkalosis... name other causes of resp alkalosis... underlying main cause of it... wht happens to HCO3 ion amount...
Vit C functions... coenzyme of alkaline phophatase... enzymes of cofactors... Nickel... Molybdenum... Carbonic anhydrase cofactor...
Alkaline phosphatase role in body... when doed it increase?...
Why does it increase? Rickets? Glutathione?
External : External: def of lipids, types of fatty acids, name fatty acids, rancidity, phytanic acid (branched chain fatty acid), phytanic acid khan hta h (pta nhi), cyclic amino acids htay hn?
pH... effect of ph change by 1 on hydrogen ion concentration... enzyme... classification... enzyme inhibition... Anti enzyme... Enzyme poisons... Oxidoreductases ki classification... Pentathenoic Acid functions....
Invert sugar, tautomerism, choline n its functions, functions of glycerol, names of GAGs, glycoconjugates, epimers with examples, chem name of B12, its coenzyme forms n their functions.
Classification of proteins, conjugated proteins, examples of phoshphoproteins, what r mucoproteins, difference between mucoproteins n glycoproteins (%age of carb in both), amino sugars, GAGs n their functions.
Polysaccharides, classification and examples. Vitamin A functions, sources. Its richest source.
Cholesterol, bile, emulsification, lipoic acid, betaine, acidic and basic amino acids, essential amino acids, vitamins and their respective coenzymes, their enzymes, their reactions, transaminases, keto acids, thiamine, why cholesterol doesn't give energy, which compounds give energy, how much, chemical name of phosphatidylcholine.
- Internal:crystalloids, osmotic pressure due to crystalloids is equal on both sides, colloids, their osmotic pressure is on 1 side of membrane, pH of saliva, saliva k axhay kaam, albumin n total protein
Level in plasma, pressure exerted by albumin:oncotic pressure, iska faida, vitamin C k functions, isk deficiency se knsay anemia htay hn, secretors, blood grp substances belong to heteropolysaccharides, functions of bile salts, choleretics, how they function
- External: amino acid, zwitter ion, isoelectric pH and its significance, methods of separation of amino acids, ultracentrifugation, ultracentrifuge machine me force kesy inrease krty hain? B complex vitamins, biotin k func, deficiency symptoms and avidin.
Internal: lipoic acid, betaine, glycine,non essential and essential amino acids, non standard amino acids, tyrosine essential/non essential?Why carbs are sweet? Cane sugar, fruit sugar, table sugar, linkage in maltose, source of maltose, beta 1-4 linkage kis kis me parha hai? Ca level, tetany, appearance of hand in tetany, Ca k achay kaam, Biotin.
- External: saponification not saponification number, classification of carbs, dextrin and dextran difference, lipoproteins, good n bad lipoproteins, chylomicrons, pellagra,niacin biochemical role (though not given in detail in mushtaq but do it from some other source in order to explain 3D's in collaboration with metabolism, if u know the symptoms of disease like retrograde amnesia then u should know what's it? he asked me some terms related to the diseases of vitamins.Anti enzymes n examples? GOT n GPT ratio in MI n liver disease, nd some more not remembering right now.
Internal: sir shakeel made me confuse as soon as I stepped into the room by asking some unusual questions not related to practical but somehow my interview that was. . Then he asked me about Glutamic acid ( tell each n everything u know about this)its role, he named some of the amino acids n I've to tell whether they're essential or not, omega 6, 3 fatty acids, names, role, then he nodded me to go soon he asked me to stop n started asking about ecosanoids, types, role of gamma linolenic acids, prostaglandins medical application, their harmful effects n infact that was a kind of viva on ecosanoids on the doorstep of Hod's room.
- External: polysaccharides, hetero polysaccharides., difference between hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate , isomer , epimer , anomer , vit B completed , riboflavin, dietry sources , functions , daily requirements
Internal : funtions of glucuronic acid, formation , iduronic acid , heparin, its classification, glycoside, protein level, plasma sodium level, ketoacids, amino acids , alanine is essential or not, name of non essential amino acids
- External: Fatty acids? Classification. Examples of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Omega 3 oils? Enzymes? Classification. Thiamine? Functions.
Internal: Pyruvic acid? Coenzyme for pyruvate dehydrogenase? Bence Jones proteins? Multiple myeloma? Distinguishing characteristic of Bence Jones proteins? Cobalamin kay coenzymes. Related Enzymes. Reactions. Cobalamin deficiency? Why is pernicious anemia called so? Figlu test? Lipoic acid? Betaine? Choline? Where does the methyl group of Choline come from? Methyl group of Methionine comes from? Methyl group of methyl cobalamine from? THFA? A few questions on chicken tikka and Shami kababs. Plasma levels of sodium, chloride, calcium, albumin and plasma proteins.
- External: structure ov cell membrane ,function ov cell membrane ,active transport ,secondary active transport, difference between colloids n crystalloids, pellagra ,beriberi , biochemical role ov niacin, riboflavin ,cobalamin...
Internal: chemical name ov Vit D, funvtions ov Vit D, role ov Vit E , scurvy, gamma carboxylation ov glutammis acid,..asked a Lot abt coenzymes , enzymes ,Transaminase ,names ov non essential amino acids , DOPA n its functions...
- External: lipids,classification, gastric juice , pancreatic juice, collagen diseases, digestion of protein carbs by enzymes, lipoproteins, their structure, vitamin C
Internal: anion gap, metabolic acidosis, first second n third line of defense against acid base disturbance, mechanism of acidification of urine, pH of urine, milk sugar, milk protein, link in milk sugar
- Internal: What is pseudo uridine? uridine? LDL? lipoprotien function. Difference in structure of lecithin and plasmalogens. Functions of phospholipids. Biotin function and co enzyme form. Name cardiac glycosides. Difference between steroids and sterols. Normal level of cholesterol. Bence jones protiens. What are immunoglobulins? name their types. Sweetest sugar? Functions of cardiolipin
External: Classify lipids. What are simple lipids? Compound lipids? What is lipoprotien? name the protiens and lipids that make up a lipoprotien. Vitamin K functions. Apoprotien.
- External: Define buffers. Write down phosphate and bicarbonate buffers. Pka. Components of acid-base balance regulation mechanism(buffers,lungs,kidneys). Vitamin K name and function.
- Internal: Functions of cholesterol. Lipoprotein structure. Types of lipoprotein(VLDL,LDL,IDL,HDL,chylomicrons). Good and bad cholesterol. Selenium. Selenocysteine. Isomerism in carbohydrates. Stereoisomerism. Anomerism. Optical isomerism. Isomaltose. Invert sugar. Mutarotation. Collagen. Albuminoids. Cephalins. Plasmalogens. Structure of choline. Structure of sphingosine. Vitamin E and functions. Lyases and ligases with examples.
Lipids def and classification
DNA and RNA difference , types of DNA , Mutations and types
cholesterol and its functions
Calcium , its fuctions ,Blood clotting,role of Vit K in clotting
Second messengers,inositol,myo inositol
Serum levels of Glucose,Na,K,cholesterol
Carbohydrates, disaccharides, Lactose intolerance
Name water soluble vitamins, Biochemical role of Niacin, its deficiency disease.
what are glycosides.
Cholestrol functions, Handerson Hasselbatch Equation, Its importance, what is pKa, Comparison of Ka and pKa of strong and weak acids, Why is Histidine a good buffer, Structure of Histidine, Chemical name for Vit. K, Function of Vit K, Gamma Carboxylation k faiidey, Serum level of Ca, What is Chitin, What is invert sugar, Why called invert sugar, Homopolysaccarides, Lactose and Maltose.
External: Secondary structure of protein, methods for determination of primary structure, vitamin D functions
Internal: Amino acids(essential,non essential,standard etc) pyridoxine, biotin
EXTERNAL : Define CH,
what are oligosacchirides? give e.g.
maltose, lactose,sucrose, ma kon sa monosacchirides hota han or linkage kon sa hota ha?
lactose intolerance kia hota ha?
amino sugar kia hota han?
Vit.c , its functions and disease
standerd and non standerd amino acid
bence john proteins
km and its significance
competitive inhibitor ka graph draw karwaya
beta 1-4 linkage kis kis ma hota ha
mRna ka function, kon sa rna sab sa zada hota ha(rRNA) and its percentage