Skip to main content

2nd professional pathology major viva questions 2015

Major me sab se pehle apki internal assessment jo apparently maam ko kisi ki bi pasand ni ai. (For girls maam kapre gor se dekhti :P)
Phr ppr kesa hua? Atresia atrophy how to determine sle (robbins wala table) granuloma ki examples sarcoidosis aur tb me dif (histological) hypersensitivity type 4 examples ppd. Old age pregnant female kay child ko kiya disease hoskti? Down syndrome kiya hta ? Vit d deficiency se kiya hta kiyo hta?

Sir farrukh : introduce yourself. Ur maid has fever and suspect typhoid wat to do? Nutrient agar identify kraya use kiyo use krte. Skin tests . Hypersensitivity type 4 again. Oncogenic viruses,types and names. He like agar alot do them from shamim and salmonella typhii ki lab diagnosis bi pochi sab se.
Dono superficial sunte.agar ni ata to kuch ni kehte. Neoplasia cell agar and bacterio zada sun rahe the models identify bi kraye. Saray fundamental questions poche the
Mam HOD is sweet . and sir farukh bhi chill . Dono pehley introduction letay .. mam asked from genetics too . models b rkhay uy thay (Aik femur wala tha blog pa nai).. sir nay agars rkhay uy thay.. agars achi trha prepare krnay . for ospe + viva both
Mam- Characteristics of malignancy + malignant cells .. metastasis kesay hoti . 3 pathways (hematogenous/lymphatic/seeding) hematogenous commonly kin cancers sy ota (sarcomas) bachoun mai konse cancer common .. macrophages ka role in inflammation . types of immunity . metaplasia ki def n 3 examples .. Disinfection ki def .
Sir- Streptococci ki diseases.. S.pneumonia k virulence factors . uski shape (lancet shaped- draw kro) uski lab diagnosis . specimen taken(sputum) blood agar used for ? (hemolysis - uski types n poststreptococcal diseases . kese otin . konsi type of hypersensitivity (type 3) and thora scenario bna k puchtay examples dey k ..

Klinefelter, candida, trichomonas , hypersensitivity rex, tb which type of hypersensitivity, chocolate agar purpose, diagnosis of gonorrhea, sterilization, dsz caused by neisseria , chemical mediators, hyperplasia, benign n malignant tumors, morphological characters of malignant cells

 Dr.Rakhshanda : intro, how did ur written ppr go? Cystic fibrosis. Marasmus Kawashiorkor nd their differences. Scenario: a woman with abnormal b/v wat do u suspect? Leiomyoma model. Differentiate it from it's malignant type. Oncogenic viruses k names. HPV causes which cancer. It's mechanism for causing cancer. CDKI's k names.
Dr. Farrukh: intro. Scenario: ur maid has fever since last 4 days wat would u advise her in layman term to check for typhoid fever. Both are chill. They don't get angry if u don't know something. Nd maam is very serious abt nutrition wala chp so if u have enough time just go through it once.
 Internal: specimen of leiomyoma, which type of tumor is this, classification of tumors, if a woman presents with an ovarian tumor how will you diagnose, tumor markers..

External: Dick test, name other skin test, tuberclin test is which type of reaction, DTH is which type of hypersenstivity reaction, diff btw type 2 &3 , what is opsonisation and define inflammation

 Int : differentiate b/w clot and thrombus
Virchow's triad
What is embolus
Atresia and atrophy
Ext : parasite transmitted through feet
Hostel me reh k knse knse infection hte bacterial and viral
Tumor causing virus
Dick test

Internal: mjy btyn k bladder cancer konsa chemical carcinogen krwata h
Asbestos kya krwata h? Han lung cancer krwata h uski site of origin kya h?
Streptococcus or staphylococcus ko kese differentiate krte?
Embolus kya hta? Types?
Origin of fat embolism me agr Kahn k fracture hua h long bone ka or risk of fat embolism h to iska kya mtlb h?

Ye kya h? (Nutrient agar lg ra tha us p brownish black wavy pattern ki growth ne kaha sorry sir I don't know) Han Han ye to Wse e student ko tang krne k lea rkha hua
Ye kya h (pink color tha I said maconkey...sir kehte ye side c blue h....I said cled agar sir)CLED kya hta? Ye kun use krte? Kon se bacteria UTI krwate type 1 hypersensitivity ki example ....
External: sir thori practical baatein scnerio bna k pochtay hain like he asked agr apne ghar main ksi cheez ko sterilize krna ho tou kesi kro ge. I said sir boil kr k.😕 He said boiling se poori trhan sterilize hojaye ga..😕 sir phr autoclave kr letay hain. ghar main autoclave hae apke? 😑 sir phr pta nahi. Oho bai pressure cooker nahi hae ghar main us main kren ge..weight barhaatay jao aur sterilize kr lo.
Chalo btao bacteria tou culture kiye hain na tm ne. Hain kb.. nahi tou sir.😦 bai dhai nahi jamaya kbhi ghar main...
per vo kehtay kuch nahi hain na bhi ata ho kher hae.
Agars main se ziada poch rhe thay

Exrnl: ek hadiqa gana b gati ha kia nam ha uska... ap gati ho??
G sr kbi kbi tongue emoticon
Sr acha thora sa touch do tongue emoticon me smiling tongue emoticon
Sr : kher btao sterlization
Heat k method dry moist above belw at 100
Ghr m koi chez strlize krni ho tou kesy kro gy
R ghr m autoclave bna skty?? Yes pressure cooker
Method of tumr spread
Kia koi doctr krwa skta tumr spread ??
Dengue diagnosis
Hook wrm
Trichoma vaginalis ??
Kesa nzr ata
Kesy transmt hotaa
Skin tumrs qw zada western cntries m hota.. hmary yha qw ni hota zada??

 internal: hypertrophy , growth factors , uv radiations , dengue external : introduction. LJ stain . apoptosis . relation with tumour . ghar me konsa bacteria grow krate

 internal:vit A deficiency,hemophilia,hypercholestrolemia.external:metastasis and its routes,promoter n initiator,chemical causing bladder cancer,mycobacterium t.b,its culture.

 Internal:calcification its types dye use to identify calcium...antibiogram on which agar its purpose...TSI agar all reactions abt it..urease medium
External:casonis test..gram -ve cocci gonococcus lab diagnosis...blood agar ....lactose fermenters other than ecoli..pseudomonas type infection
 Internal : leishmania (its pathogenesis, symptoms, lab diagnosis, why is it called black fever)
Giarda (which class does it belong to and its pathogenesis)

External : Long intro. Apoptosis. Atrophy. Hyperplasia. Etiology of carcinogenesis. How does sunlight cause cancer and leishmania again.
Dr. Rakhshanda:
Transplant Rejection types
Diseases of innate immunity

Dr. Farrukh:
y is lowenstein jensen medium placed in closed container?
(baki questions Repeat..)
Internal: Classify Streptococci, name beta-haemolytics, what is a superantigen, Toxic shock syndrome, difference b/w a clot & thrombus, predisposing conditions for thrombus formation, lab diagnosis of Ancylostoma duodenale, name check-points of cell cycle, cyclins & CDKs, HIV...

External: Lab-diagnosis of Typhoid fever, agars & mediums, Mosquito responsible for Malaria & Dengue fever.

 External: Kahan se o. Abu kya krty. Hath p kya lga hua. (GRAM stain), issy kis liye use krty. Heat fixation kyun krty. Decoloriser kyun use krty. Counter stain kya hota. Why m.tuberculosis is called acid fast. ...Tumhari neighour ko burning micturation hai, vo urine test krwati, uski report mein ata 2 pus cells n 6 to 7 rbcs, what is your diagnosis. I was like sir infection tou nae ae cux pus cells are only two, most prolly hematuria. Sir kehty acha.....vo tumharay sath dramay krai ae. Shes on her menstruation. Kch bi nae usse. Le ME: 0______0.

 Internal: Paper kesa hua. I said mam pbqs n leq sae hogye, bss nutrition walay question mein prb ayi. She said acha, so tell me k marasmus n kwashiorkor mein kya difference. I said mam mein prh k ayi hu ab ye. She said good chlo sunao. Then she asked about tthe diff btw transudate and exudate. Types of hypersensitivity reactions. Mam int assessment bht ghor se dekh rain hain.

Chemical carcinogens wala table..occupational cancers me se asbestos..metastatic spread..types of agars..culture ki sensitivity check krni ho to konsa agar use krte..

Agars ki identification krwai..CLED agar ka streptococcal disease...vibrio salmonella shigella k lie konsa specific agar use krte..
Mendelian disorders, hypercholestrolemia, thrombus, types of embolus, autoimmune diseases

CLED agar, LJ medium, lab diagnosis of plasmodium, sarcoma, carcinoma, infections common in hostellites, actinomycosis
Cystic fibrosis, diagnosis of HBV HCV,, AIDS what possible neoplasms are caused by this virus?? Oncogenes...
Anemia causing parasites
Tenia saginata (how it spreads)
Types of neoplasms
Wochreria bancrofti...
 External : diseases common in hostellites, differences between apoptosis and necrosis, type of injuries reversible / irreversible sterilization its methods with details.
Internal :- types of carcinogenesis ( she was asking for carcinogens) name mutations responsible for carcinogenesis.. Example of gene silencing in carcinogenesis , p53 details , diagnosis of HBV.
what r the diseases common in hostellites???
All communicable infections( like staph infections spread via fomites , n.menengitidis via aerosols , influenza virus, etc) . plus endemic ones ( dengue , malaria) ...
 Internal: Types of intracellular accumution,names of pigments,anthracosis,russell bodies,fatty liver gross features, beta oxidation,genetic diseases causing hypercholestrolemia,types of necrosis in detail, polyarteritis nodosa.
External: Identification of cled and its use,LJ medium composition and use,urea test,diphtheria

 Internal: she is seeing the internal assessment keenly
After that she asks about the written paper from everyone
Types of disorders in genetics
Down syndrome
Super female
Go through viruses and mycology too generally questions are being asked and see the past questions compulsory they are going to be repeated
External: long intro
Chocolate agar
Typhoid tests
Urinary tract infections caused by
General easy questions and don't worry viva is going to be easy In Shaa Allah

 Internal :
Cancers common in children; protooncogenes;
Factors involved in growth repair ; role of mitochondria in cell injury ; hepatitis B diagnostic tests and what is window phase.
External : compared lowenstein Jensen and cled agar ; pathways of cancer spread ; oncogenic viruses ; role of apoptosis in cancers.
Internal : Trypanosomiasis. Prevalent where? Symptoms of both kinds.
Do we need to do smth to the blood smear to observe the hemoflagellates in it ?
Cancer-causing viruses ..
External : Intro longer than viva itself. Phrased an MCQ: Gold standard for TB, gave options .. justify your answer.
How to sterilise gloves..
What are the ways by which tumor suppressor genes can be under-expressed..
 External:Granuloma ,wat kind of hypersensitivity is in tb, which is immediate hypersensitivity, Montenegro tst,caspase
Internal: mediators of acute inflammation, chronic inflammation mediators, fate of inflammation, what happens if healing does not go proper,keloid
 minor vivas... urine me pus n rbcs kun knse bacteria knsi infections kese culture kren ge ....slide kese set krte... procedure n reason for using dif stains
int. cystic fibrosis n then neoplasia mese benign malignant hallmarks... uv rays se kese hoga...
 Chemical mediator- that promotes inflammation.. e.g cell derived: histamine cytokines etc nd plasma protein derived: complemnt products

 EXTERNAL: define neoplasia,characteristics of malignancy,name any tumor marker
INTERNAL: characteristics of malignancy,calcification ki types,grading of cancer,staph n strept ki colonies on blood agar,microscopic difference in strept and staph.
 EXTERNAL: features of reversible injury, egs of irreversible injury, mitochondrias role in it, characteristic test for salmonella, non lactose fermenters k names, rice water stool in,tests for cholera... INTERNAL: chemical mediators of chronic inflammation, histological dif bw tb n sarcoidosis, intracellular accumulations, when is cholestrol raised, mech of hypercholesterolemia

Internal:patient k liver main abcess hai apka phla disgnosis kya hoga..define repair..granulation tissue..factors promoting vasculogenisis in tumor..rabies virus..
External:intro..anaerobic then inko kaisay culture kar sakty..vibrio cholera..rice water stool..infarction-reversible or irreversible..

Internal:classify genetic defects, recessive and dominant differences, hypercholesterolemia,pigments found in body, dyes to differentiate brown pigments,bilirubin importance . External :names of protozoa , anaerobic bacteria names/ culture,anaerobic jar,tumor markers,proteus colony special feautures/name
Detailed intro; paper me sub say acha konsa question attempt kia tha?
Leishmania in detail; why called kala azar? Organism causing pernicious and megaloblastic anaemia ; type 2 hypersensitivity reaction wd examples. 
external:how will u diagnose tb? How will u diagnose salmonella,define neoplasm,name tumor markers
Internal:aflatoxin,carcinogenic chemicals,bladder cancer kon krwata;if a foreign antigen enters into ur body ,how ur body will react?
T. Vaginalis
How to differentiate the cysts of E.Amebae from that of Giardia
How would you identify candida
Fungi causing systemic disorders
Fungi causing skin infections..she was stressing on the names Tenia Verciclor and Tenia Capitis
Fat necrosis with its types
Enzymes that breakdown fat
Beta Oxidation

Papa kya krty hn ?
Sir child specialist hn
Khn se hu ?
Sir Gujranwala
Tu gujranwala m bcho m anemia k common causes kya hn ??
Parasites that enter directly through skin
Differentiate type 3 and type 2 hypersensitivities
Define neoplasia
External: names of gram positive cocci. How will you differentiate streptococci from staphylococci by gram staining? Kitni types k tumors hotay hain?

 External : long intro,, wat is oncology. Define neoplasm..types of the protozoa .. types of trypanosoma
Internal: use of mcConkey agar,, ecoli diseases and lab diagnosis,, wat is fish tape worm .. role of prostaglandins in inflammation

 Vials spotting mein arai hn so one shud kntheir types. EDTA vial has purple cap, sodium flouride vial has grey cap, heparin green, serum separator tube red color.
 Cbc vial has blue cap i guess..

Wucheria detailed
Tb diagnosis
Exudate transudate diff
Dec oncotic pressure se konsa
Cancer diagnostic techniques
Tb gold standard

Typhoid k patient k blood sample k sath kya krna hai and i m still not sure what he wants to know exactly .
( read something abiut puting it in a broth initially and checking for growth)
Routes of metastasis ( he wants more than just the 3
Csf and neuronal( confirm krlena)!
cancer causing viruses

external : 1. agars identification 2. CLED in detail 3. coagulation and inflammation when injury occurs 4. complications of healing 5. srofuloderma ( this is TB scrofula) 6. lupus vulgaris (nodular lesions of Tb on skin esp face) 7. Dx of tb

internal : antigenic drift, antigenic shift, dengue in detail, types of dengue virus (4 serotypes), granulomatous inflammation types, examples

INTERNAL: autosomal recessive disordera+exp , glycogen storage diseases , LDL Receptor deficiency and effect on liver , necrosis types ,define gangrene
EXTERNAL: malarial parasite , gram -ve cocci , typhoid fever

 internal; protooncogenes? what are genes? genetic disorders? classification of genetic disorders? hemophilia belonges to which category? can it appear in females? diseases of innate immunity? diff btw adenoma n carcinoma of thyroid
Internal: If a person has sore throat nd fever what will b his blood pic? Tb test , Hbv k lab diagnosis
Ext: organisms causing cancer? Through which pathways cancer spread in body
Gram + bacilli (ecoli)

  Internal : plasmodium. Diagnosis . Why do u make thick and thin slides . What parts of Pakistan does falciparum malaria occur commonly (southern punjab , balochistan, sindh.) How it infects man . Gametocytes kee appearance in blood . Define dysplasia . What is carcinoma in situ

 External : diagnosis of TB in patient . LJ medium . Why is it in a screw capped bottle (did not accept any explanation ) how is it different from cled. Gold standard for TB diagnosis (it's the LJ medium)
 External: klebsiella colonies are grown on which sgar? How to diagnose a patient of typhoid fever(wanted to knw blood se bacterium kese separate krty!!!!!!)he said ye sb to thrd yr me ana chahye.... he judges you on basis of int assessmnt n intro u giv.. us hisaab k question poochty hn...

Internal: bile esculin pe kon grow krta ha?... strep faecalis kis group se belong krta ha ( was asking tha lancfield group).. strep staph ka diffetence kese krna.. coagulase positive kon ha...colonies of strept n staph naked eye appearance pe kese nazar ati hn( on agar)
 Internal: trichinosis, oncogenes, i said Ras and Myc toh unk agay pathways puche, malignant cell k features, cell cycle checkpoints

External: define neoplasia, shigella kya krata hai, lactose and non lactose fermenters, mac Conkey identify kraya
 Internal: thrombus, embolus, clot, differences between malignant and benign rumours
External: citrate identify karyaya, its use, use of coagulase test

 Internal: Euchromatin and heterochromatin Barr bodies Different infections me CBC pe kaise values aaeinge. Noncoding DNA regions ke importance. External MCkonkey agar id Non lactose fermenters Salmonella diagnosis Blood culture
Internal: FNA, Malignant cells kese nazar atey, coding non coding regions of DNA, UV rays sei kia hota. External: CLED and MacConkey identify krwai. UTI kis kis sei hotey, UTI patient ki kese diagnosis kro gi, urine sample kese dekho gi.
 Internal: Tumor markers, examination of tumor, appearance of streptococci colonies, fat necrosis, types of necrosis, antigenic shift.
External: LT antibodies, examples of Protozoa, gram negative bacilli, diagnosis of typhoid fever, diagnosis of trypanosoma.
In pregnancy uterus k kis part mai hyperplasia hta n kis mai hypertrophy ?
Tay Sachs?
Hurler syndrome?
Hirshsprung disease ?
Organism responsible for psuedomembranous colitis ?
Shigella ? Produces endotoxin or exotoxin?
Stool culture ?
How will u prevent the growth of e.coli in stool culture ?
 Int: abdominal cramps and stools with blood and mucus. Ur Diff diagnosis? Amoebiasis in detail. How will u diff b/w trophozoite n encysted entanoeba in stools. Pigments in body. Dye used to isolate Fe frm body. Define immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer markers. MoA of UV rays damage.

Ext: Amoebic dysentry, classify protozoa, diff b/w hypoplasia and atrophy, complications of repair system, proud flesh, *Mucilline ulcers* (Dont remember what he actually said. but he told k these r ulcers associated with dysplasia due to presence of inc growth factors in repair process), types of repair other than healing, define free redical.
 Internal: identification of a model (colloid goiter), looking at this model macroscopically how would you tell if this is benign or malignant, if a man has a tumor on the front of his thigh how would you proceed

External: define neoplasia, types, name benign and malignant tumors, what is a chondroma, what is a cordoma, what cancer grows as a continuous cord in the blood vessels, pathways of spread of cancer (kept saying aur, aur, aur)

 interna : lenght of human dna, diseases with abnornal protein syn, hypercholestrolemia, atherosclerosis, infarction, typeof necrosis in infarction, coagulative k features and mediators, mac complex, external mackonkey and nutrient agar,uses xld agar , blood culture Int: genes in human genome (3 billion), how u classify cancers on basis of genes. Breast cancer female ka marker(CEA and most imp is estrogen receptor), acute mylogenous leukemia m chromosome 15 pe ky hta knsi mutation. Breast cancer ka diagnosis . vurcheri vurchuris. Rabies virus
External: mackonky ki I'd and use. Bacillary and emboic dysentery m did from stools. Neoplasm def n classification.
 Internal: Model of uterus, Where can Metaplasia occur in uterus, whats Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, what are Psammoma bodies, Streptococci Pyogenes, lab diagnosis of it, how do you differentiate from pneumococci.

External: Cled, its uses. Organisms causing UTI, why proteus grown on cled, what does proteus cause. A female has Urinary tract infection, how will you proceed to confirm if she has an infection or not? Why do u find crystals in urine? Differentiate between Amoebic dysentry and shigella dysentry. define neoplasm.
Internal: Neoplasia,cancer caused by polyvinyl chloride,naphthylamine
Lab diagnosis of Dengue,malaria,mosquito causing dengue,parasite causing cancer,geography of schistosoma
D.D for NLF, proteus motility,diagnosis. Mcconkey, indicator used in TSI
External:Cled agar uses,color changes
urine sample in UTI,causes for darkening of urine sample kept in bottle
Internal : Asbestos Radon Lead.
Falciparum diagnosis.
Also called? Tertian malignant fever. Also called? Black water fever.
External : salmonella typhi and its diagnosis. diarrhea causing agents and details.
Internal: analysis of urine. What would you do next after finding wbcs in urine. Which Agar would be used? Types of shock

External: staphylococcus analysis. Name protozoa. Nutrient Agar identify and uses. He was asking about LD bodies?

 External: Protozoa classification. Leishmania n diagnosis. Typhoid n diagnosis. Internal: Cholecystitis model. Inflammation type and differences between caseating non caseating histological. differences between specific n non-specific chronic inflammation. mediators. terminal inflammatory events. difference in phagocytosis by macrophages n neutrophils.i Internal : Difference btween Dominant and recessive genes,
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis , Types of Emboli , Differences between clot and thrombus ......viruses, repair

External : urease agar, citrate agar, uti diagnosis by urine, how many pus cells in normal urine slide, how many for infection,bacteria causing uti, tenia saginata pathogenesis, length of t. Saginata, cled agar, neoplasia
 External: intro longer than viva. Neoplasia definition. Mjhe tum main aik tumor nzr aa rha hai. (nevus). Malignant form btao iski. LJ identify aur us ki composition, color of colonies. Routes of metastasis. Post streptococcal rheumatic fever diagnosis.

Internal: internal assesment observed keenly, chronic cholecystitis ka model, its complication, familial hypercholestremia, its stages, its mutations, hypercholesterolmia occurs in which nutritional disease. Pancreatic lipase is deficient in which genetic diseases, mutation of CF, what happens to pancreatic duct, what type of necrosis in pancreatitis, chronic inflamation, its cells, RGD motif.
internal-- How was ur paper? Class tests all absent- yeah i remember u went to America for electives and later u attended the BDS classes to make up for the attendance- i said no mam actually i got debarred gasp emoticon. Trichinella, cutaneous mycoses, stain in fungi (i told her the agar then she told me the stain and said it's not important, u don't need to know that anyway), she started to make a clinical scenario- luckily she got a call and forgot about it later, define neoplasia, characteristics of metastatic cells, hyperplasia, cervix epithelium changes which carcinoma-squamous cell carcinoma

External- where r u from? i started the intro in English- he said "haen (Urdu)" then a big full stop to intro. All tests absent- i explained the reason- he didn't get a single word then mam explained it to him. Identification of CLED Agar- what's the purpose? i started with the abbreviation told him the whole detail, after that he asked what's the abbreviation?? urinary pathogens how will u get them from urine?? that's it

External:Nutrient agar & uses , peptone water & uses , typhoid fever diagnosis ,define neoplasm, routes of metastasis , difference btw bacterimia and septicemia

Internal: model identification(leiomyoma i guess) benign and malignant tumours, thrombus formation, diff btw clot and thrombus , multiple myeloma and amyloidosis
external: lactose fermenter bacteria, klebsiella agar ( Simmon citrate medium) malarial parasite, defective wound healing, keloid, proud flesh, apoptosis, Thypoid test (widal) , vibrio types, CLED agar, lactose non fermenters, name of tumours, infarction, is it reversible or irreversible(ans is irreversible)
iinterna: choristoma, hemartoma, routes of metastases, lymph node model, netmeg liver, granulomatous disease, TB GOLD TEST( IGRA- interferon gamma release assay) iron excess in body, leprosy diagnosis
Internal: Cystic fibrosis ? Tumours in infants ? Chordoma ? Thrombosis ki complications ?
Red and white infarcts ? Histological difference ? A patient comes to you with bloody diarrhea. What specimen should be taken to identify organism causing it ? Which stains and agars should be used (basically sara stool examination from practical notebook)
External: Patient present with symptoms of TB. Which tests can be done to confirm diagnosis . Name any 5 (do not i repeat do not forget simple acid fast staining of sputum). LF medium ? Color of M.TB colonies on it ? Hyperplasia ? Hypoplasia and atrophy main difference ? Rapid turnover and slow turnover granulomas ? Routes of metastases ?
Internal assesment matters a lot to both teachers.
Today was a good day. But don't rely on it. Keep your preparation good.
Slides and specimens were easy today. Ik bhi confusing nhi tha.
Internal. Clostridium detail.
Lowenstein jensen duration for growth.
Healing aur regeneration k differences.
Gram -ve cocci

 Internal : autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive disorders, types of gene mutations, missense mutation, frameshift mutation, what is the mutation in huntington's disease, ancylostoma, types of schistosoma, dracunculus,
Internal: Necrosis ki types. Fibrinoid...hmmmm... Kia hoti hai bhla ye? Achaaa. Ye btao rabies ka to pta hoga. Ye kese ata hai body main. Artery thori c narrow hojae to organ ko kia hoga. Achaww thrombus kese bnta. Hydrophobia kiun? Btao ji Schiller test? Bs jao.
External: mackonkey btao kon sa wala hai, lactose fermenter btao, non lactose fermenter btao

 Internal: Paper main sab sy acha question konsa hoa tha? Tumor k difference wala! Chalo benign or Malignant k differences btao. Neoplasia ki definition. Carcinoma in situ. Matrix Metalloproteinase ki significance or function. Repair k pathways btao, I said Regeneration and Scarring. She said k kis pathway sy ho gi, I guess k healing by first and second intention pchna chah rahi thein. Infarction k case main konsi type of Necrosis hoti? Red or White Infarct kin organs main hota. Lymph node ka model or us k andar caseous Necrosis pcha!

UTI's ko kis trha detect krty. Wuchereria Bancrofti ki pathogenesis
Schiks test, loeflers medium , sterilization , Pathological Apoptosis

Necrosis Types , fat necrosis explanation , Disinfectant in emergency use in home ( Perfume or After-shave ) , Hemagllutination test , Repair methods , Keloid .

 Internal: Nutmeg liver, heart failure cells, Microbacta.... Rest is Same Old, Same Old....


Popular posts from this blog

1st Year IMPORTANT TOPICS (Anatomy)

By Farkhanda QaiserOkay finally here it is. The all-important guide for the 1st year students. I’ve compiled all the prof and sendup questions of last year as well as the remnants of class tests that I had.But before you go on to read them, keep in mind the following very tested tidbits:For profs, NEVER leave any topic untouched and unread. Go through all topics so that in viva, you have atleast some idea about what the examiner is asking.NEVER lose your sendup question paper because there are high chances that some of the questions will be repeated in profs as you can see in the following example of anatomy question paper and same goes for the MCQs. Most of them are repeated. So here’s what we had done, in our facebook class group, we had made a discussion topic, and everyone told the MCQs of sendups and discussed them. Well, you may think us nerds or whatever but trust me that discussion proved very fruitful for all those who participated in it.I think enough has bin said about orga…

USMLE Step 1 Experience by Ayaz Mehmood (Score : 99/266)

USMLE Step 1 Experience by Ayaz Mehmood (Score : 99/266)
Salam everyone, let me start in the name of Allah who’s the greatest benefactor of all mankind. I am going to write a detailed composition regarding preparation for USMLE Step 1. I am a final year student at King Edward Medical University and I took my exam on June 10th. Final year is the year before internship/ house job in Pakistan. I just got my scores: 99/266

Let me introduce some myths surrounding USMLE Step 1 which are especially prevalent within Pakistan; I am not too sure about India because I heard their students typically appear in their final years.

 Myth number 1:Do not appear for USMLE Step 1 within your graduation

 Verdict: Baseless, illogical reasoning

Explanation: This is so prevalent in Pakistan it’s almost pathetic. One of the biggest concerns surrounding our students is that Step 1 is a huge risk to be taken before graduation. Let me put it in another way: Step1 would always remain a risk whenever it is taken, …

Lecture Slides: Urology; Renal cell Carcinoma