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2nd professional Pathology practical spots and questions 2015


The ospe started at 9.first 20 students went first. After that we were sent to another room and the first two girls were called for major. After the other batch was done with ospe the whole batch gathered in the lab and wrote both staining process .then id of urine slide. And staining at the end. Minor viva sath sath horahe the.

 Written k liye do practicals krne ha : staining and zeihl nelson + unki diagrams bi.
Urine ki slide milti ha written bad wo focus krni ha at 40x aur phr jo nazar aye woi draw krna hta ha 


 Pus cells in urine.
Spots me lipoma fibroadenoma ki slide afb ki slide tsi cled mckonkey agar appendicitis cholecystitis roundworm granuloma ki slides. Anerobic chamber esr appartus neutrophils lymphocytes ki slide


Urine viva = examined at which magnification(40) why not 100 ? Which other slides are examined at 100? Histopathology at which slide? Urine examination full.
Staining viva= gram positive cocci staph aureus ki disease and cause exotoxin etc. gram positive rod spore and non spore forming k names listeria ka medium of growth clostridium ki types and difficle ka pathogenesis.

 atrophy , plasmodium , atresia , acute inflammation , chocolate agar , taenia saginata , anaerobic jar and ESR apparatus. 

Agars....
Blood
McConkey
CLED
Nutrient
Lowenstien jensen
Citrate -ve
Urease -ve
Instruments....
Anaerobic jar
ESR tube
Models.....
Cholelithiasis
Acute appendicitis
Leomyoma
Lipoma
Tenia saginata
Slides...
Neutophil
Monocyte
Cholecystitis
Granuloma

Models : taenia saginata, appendicitis, leiomyoma, cholelithiasis, goitre
Slides: neutrophil, monocyte. Acute appendicitis, lipoma, granuloma(not sure).


 Instruments: anaerobic jar . Sodium citrate tube

Procedures for gram staining and zeil nelson.
Urine analysis.
Viva : what instructions you will you give a patient for getting his urine sample?
 Blood cell slide of urine analysis
Procedures for gram staining and zeil nelson
Viva what else can u notice in urine slides
what are casts?? In which disease they are produced??? How they appear in slides??
What other features can u notice if u are provided with a urine sample
What is the specific gravity of urine??
What organisms can u see in gram staining??
What are geimsa nd PM stains??
How can u stain fungi?
Why do we use zeil nelson staining?
Practical is easy . First you have to write gram n ZN staining in 10 mins. Then youll b given urine slide . Ask any teacher to focus it if u cant . You can change your slide if its dry. Viva patho teachers lete . So no need to worry about that too

Spots are being repeated too
Those models and slides which unsa uploaded are enough no need to see kemunited models
Models :
Acute appendicitis
Chronic cholecystitis
Leiomyoma
Lipoma
Instruments:
Anaerobic Jar (imp)
Esr tube
Agars:
Almost all Agars are really imp
Do written fermenting and non fermenting
There was urease negative and citrate negative tests but sir told to write urease/citrate medium just
Slides:
Granuloma
Acute appendicitis
Chronic cholecystitis
Monocyte
Neutrophil
 Viva will be based on bacteriology mainly and parasitology
There will be one viva of gram staining and urine analysis
5 minutes to 9 pe they divided us in 2 batches (pehle me the first 20 ones) copies li unki n phr ospe, baqion ko aik room me bitha dia where we revised some stuff (this will be the only time for revision cuz baad me they start the major viva during the whole practical procedure so whatever you want to go through now is the time) when the first batch was done tou 2nd ki ospe
Jb 2nd ki ospe horae thi tou first ka Major viva start hogya tha

Ospe was easy alhamdulillah just try to keep calm cuz once it starts kafi jldi jldi ho jati (spots b pretty much saray woe thay jo kahi na kahi dekh lye thay except this thing called anaerobic jar- its this cylindrical chamber thingy with some sort of a stand inside and some pressure reading thingy on top, baqi PBS with a lymphocyte, nutrient agar, LJ medium, mackonkeys agar, leiomyoma, appendicitis wala model, cholecystitis with a stone wala, one was probably thyroid, slides me aik granuloma wali had so many giant k some people thought they were keratin pearls, aik AFB ki slide thi (and if ur tunn like me u might not notice the blue background n end up writing gram negative bacilli XD ) aik fibroadenoma, Basal cell carcinoma, TSI with acid slant and acid butt, ascaris, lipoma (These are not confirmed cuz apprently nobody is in the mood to either recall or discuss anything so these are the ones I can recall at the moment )
Also sir zahid zia ki duty thi aaj I'm not sure he will be there kal b ya ni but he was helping out ospe me b bachon ko , the ones who were writing something wrong ya jo confused kharay thay (waisay zada confuse onay ka time ni ota u just have a minute for a spot, and beware when u reach spot number 20 and its not ur 20th one XD aik end of the lab se other end pe jana tongue emoticon and u still have one minute to identify and write the ID points, the run to the first spot is a long one so run like wind XD)
Ospe is for 20 marks, usi wqt check kr dete hain wou

Ospe kr k they will give u a spot tashreef rakhnay k lye now u get to write the gram staining and ZN staining aik hi sheet milay gi and by that I mean 2 leafs/ 4 pages - uspe hi dono likhnay hain, u have to write them in steps and procedure e likhna hai bs saath diagram draw krni ( so take ur H and E pencils and a blue colour pencil with u)
Also AFBs are smaller than gram negatives tou uski proportion sae rakhna and spell Ziehl neelson staining correctly tongue emoticon
Ye b usi wqt check ogya tha they were giving 7,8 ya 9 to everyone

Then they give u a urine specimen -_____- jo k adhay ghantay k lye ni focus ona jo mrzi krlo squint emoticon then teachers ko khayal aya k bachay tbse microscopes se khail re hain, also make sure u clean the lens esp 40× wali, and koe diaphragm and stage ki height ko b tweak krna tha jo attendant ne phr kr k de ra tha, also kuch microscopes kharab hon gi tongue emoticon sir zahid apse kahain ge k microscope aur le k ao n u do but phr b sae se nazar ni ana XD slide change kr k dekh lo tou b ul never be sure k artefact kia ae N jo dekhna wou kia hai XD logo ko tyrosine crystals oxalate crystals b nazar anay lg ge thay pus cells me xD (the slides will not be like the ones we were shown in the lab)at the end just made a pus cell on the paper, no one cared n na koe usay dekhta

Khair the good thing is the viva is the thing that matters it was taken by Sir Ahmed (our 3rd yr k incharge)
Urine me normally kitne red cells hotay, agr aa jatay tou wht does tht mean? Kis kis condition me atay, specific gravity urine ki kitni hoti, kaisay measure krte , lab me urine stick dekhi thi? (In my head: Jin logo ne TSIs dikhanay ki zehmat ni ki urine stick kia dikhai oni -_-) aik bndi se specific gravity measure krne ka tareeqa poocha the gist of it being k urine k prac se basically apne viva tayyar kr k jana hai

Phr they start calling u for gram staining depending on ur roll number , shuru se start ota I was 29 so mera tou end pe hi hua tha

During this whole procedure wou 2 2 kr k bulatay rehte hain for major viva
It was pretty chill ma'am ka mood b sae tha external lab diagnosis etc k practical questions pooch re thay, falanay day pe falanay organism ka konsa test krna, nutrient agar k kia uses otay (Apart from using it for other growth medias and growing bacteria cuz he keeps saying aur? Aur?) subculturing kia hoti and ku krte, blood culture kaisay krte
Iske ilawa he said atrophy me also add decrease in cell number , atrophy and hypoplasia me kia farq ota
Ma'am was asking super easy questions telomerase, telomerase ki umar lambi krne k lye wht kind of diet should we eat (low carb) prostrate ka tumor marker, alpha feto protein kia hai, cell cycle me check points kon kon se (CDKs wagaira b ni btanay dia ma'am ne :-/) bht Ooper Ooper se pooch rahi thin
Baqion se atrophy hypertrophy hyperplasia metaplasia with examples kuch se ascaris leishmania ka life cycle kuch I heard aik do myco k questions poochay I'm not sure kia exactly acute inflammation ki definitions in short bht superficial pooch rahi thin and tang tou kisi ko b ni kia from wht I know

Aik cheez thts left is gram staining ka viva, jo slide stain ki thi you are supposed to look at it in the microscope lekin aik tou wou tb tk meri dry ni hui thi completely and also sir bula k viva le re thay not at ur spot so he wasn't even looking at it I don't think anyone focused gram staining ki slide
Viva me sir zahid toxins enzymes wagaira pooch re thay bacteria k n if ma'am ko viva de re tou she was mostly asking staining related questions
Iodine ku use hoti in gram stain , usay mordant kehtay, decolourizer of ZN and gram me kia farq, acid fast ku kehtay , mycobac leprae ki staining me koe farq hota? Gram negative cocci n rods suna do

1:30 tk everyone was free
All the best to everyone
Zada pareshan honay ki zaroorat ni hai once it starts tou flow me hota jata hai sb n major b bht asan e le re smile emoticon
Ospe k lye in my opinion one drive walay folders are more than enough
ID points don't even matter just make sure k 2 points koe se b likh do they weren't even reading k kia likha (1 mark for every spot tha n bs wou yae dekh re thay k spot sae likha k ni)
Practicals me se learn gram and ZN by heart , guaranteed ana hai so achi tara se krlo
Take H and E pencils and blue pencil with u
Urine ka sirf viva tayyar krna
Gram staining ki sirf acting krni hai
Major b bht superficial pooch re if time kam hai don't get into the details
Mount the slide on the stage
Bring the area of cover slip under focus u can do this without looking through eye piece
Use 10× lens at first because it will give a more clear view
Move the stage as close to the lens as possible
Now start moving the stage downwards untill the slide becomes visible
Now turn the lens to 40×
Do some fine tunning if its required
I hope this will help u ppl focusing urine slides
 Ospe
Slides:
Leiomyoma
Lipoma
Tuberculous granuloma
Colloid goitre
Fatty liver
Neutrophil
Models:
Lipoma
Acute appendicitis
Taenia saginata
Leiomyoma-uterus
Cled agar
Chocolate agar
Citrate medium
TSI
CPC Wire
Urease medium
Anaerobic jar
Agar apk practical main sir zahid ya unk sath aik sir thy unka pta nae kya naam hai,hon tou unsay zarooor pooch lain joo bhii na a ra ho kynk max. Vohi cheexain sahi hoti hain jo sir say cnfrm ku hui hon..

 Internal : filaries..metaplasia... necrosis... types... faty necrosis k ahan kahan hoti ha...EXTERNAL : who will u diagnose dt poststreptococcal diseases r caused by strepto. Pyogenes?? Yay konsa agar ha? (Blood agar tha) it's use?? Neoplasia ki definition types? Dono teachers cool hn.. nothing to worry at all smile emoticon

 Minor:
Urine viva:
Why cast is cyclindrical? Wbc cast in which diseases?
Staining viva: aj staining bhi focus and check hui thi
Purpose? And staphy strep classification?

 pus in urine is called? pus cells seen in ? how will you proceed after you got pyuria in lab report ? cled? tsi? how ecoli appears on tsi? the second viva : reasons for slide not being stained properly during gram stain


pus cells appear in diseases?? most commonly UTI causing org....E.COLI culturing diagnosis biochemical reactions(nitirite+no gas+no H2S)....


urine viva; blood in the urine is called? in which cases blood appear in urine? polyuria anuria normal pH? any organism which alters urine pH? stones in altered pH?

 How will you proceed if we find wbc/pus cell in urine… (culture) culture hi kyun krta hn multiply krwana ka faida…
Gram staining khud perform krni thi nd in viva Sir asked k staining siray sa hti hi kyun nai uski koi reason…

 Blood in urine is called ? Normal pH of urine . What bacteria make the pH acid abnormal *e coli makes it acidic and proteus makes its basic * . How does proteus make it basic . What is this ?: diaphragm of the microscope . What do u do to it to see the urine slide ? *close it*

 Spotting mai strict tha thra, baki was easy. Gram staining perform nai hui aj. Urine slide mai rbcs and pus cells thay, viva: what is pyuria? Uti kon krwata? Name a gram positive organism causimg uti (staph saprophyticus)
Gram viva: baby with high grade fever, rigid body, what do u suspect? Neisseria meningitidis. Culture kis specimen ka kren ge? (CSF)
Ospe:

Agars:
MacConkey
Nutrient
Cled
Urease -ve
Citrate -ve
Lowenstein jensen
Blood agar

Models:
Acute appendicitis
Chronic cholecystitis
Taenia saginata
Round worm
Leiomyoma
One model was confusing, some wrote it lipoma, some hydatid cyst...

Slides:
Probably adenocarcinoma gut (crypts were long like those seen in gut and hey, a colorectal carcinoma is a type of adenocarcinoma!)
Esr stand
Acid fast/gram positive; confusion here
Lymphocyte (really large among large rbcs, prolly focused to a high power)
Neutrophil among rbcs (pbs)
Fibroadenoma slide
Lipoma slide
viva: organisms causing UTI, primary tuberculosis, staph aureus general, tripple phosphate present in which conditions.

 Urine slide: Epithelial cells and rbcs. kyu nazar atey. protocol for taking urine sample. Staining: Grame -ve cocci konsey hotey. aik banda singapore gya tha, he came back with a UTI, but he comes to you with inflammed swollen joint. Diagnosis? (N.gonorrhea)

 Urine slide: wbc cast.
Urine mai wbcs hon to usko kya khtay * pyuria*
What is sterile pyuria ?
TSI reaction of e.coli?
H2S. Kn produce krta ?
A person presented with rice water stool. Diagnosis ?
Organism responsible for bloody diarhea ?

Noscomial infections with examples. Name spirochetes. TSS. Hematuria causes. Normal amt of rbcs in urine. pH of urine (tell them k normally slightly acidic hoti), organisms causing change in urinary pH. How triple Phosphate crystals r formed.
Slide: triple phosphate crystals along with RBCs.
 What is hematuria, normal amount in urine, conditions in which it appears, UTI pathogens, E. coli motility, urease test, simmon citrate test, TSI
A woman goes to Singapore and develops a UTI and septic arthritis. What is the likely diagnosis? Pathogens causing bloody diarrhea, gram negative rods, difference between amoebic and salmonella dysentery, which particular strain of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea
 They may ask u k urine slide (unstained) dekhty hue diaphragm open rakhni ya clsed.... answer is closed.... I never knew this before
The man who gives u slides fr gram staining dose nt allow u enough time to stain properly... do anything to stain the slide properly for said time ( 1, 2 minutes gr each stain as written) otherwise slide stain nai hni, u wont b abl to recognise gram positive ha ya negativ
 Viva:
Appearance of rbcs, epithelial cells, pus cells in urine,
What power of lens is used, can we stain it, types of crystals and their appearance, types of casts, name acid fast bacteria, name gram negative rods, name gram positive rods, sterile pyuria, in which disease it occurs, how many rbcs and pus cells are normal in slide, why do gram negative stain pink

 RBCs on urine slide. She checked the slide. viva: reasons for the finding. bacteria causing sterile pyuria. types of pus cells. casts types, y called casts. organisms causing hematuria. difference between hematuria and hemoglobinuria. Gram positive n negative bacteria names n differences.
 Same old questions. Kin drugs ki waja sy urine ka colour change ho ga? Ketone bodies kyun aayen gi urine main? Actinomysis ka characteristics feature? Leprosy types and kon si zyada dangerous hoti? Answer na bhi aata ho to bhi zyada farq nhe parta.
Hajj par jane se pehle konsi vaccine karte (meningitis)
Actinomyces characteristic feature
Gas gangrene causing organism...


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