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Physiology Viva 1st Year 2015


  • Mam samia had blood n CVS
    She asked me abt functions of platelets, functions of eosinophil, atrial contraction , regulation of arterial blood pressure, bradychardia, sinus arrhythmia
  • External had cell, nerve n muscle, respo
    She is very sweet n asked function of mitochondria, ventral resp gp of neurons, excitation contraction coupling, refractory period, threshold potential
  • external :types of RNA ,micro RNA function, nerve action potential, refractory period, dead space (anatomical and alveolar),value of dead space air,ventilation perfusion ratio and its abnormalities internal :functions of platelets, high cardiac output failure, cardiac failure, shock, septic shock, regulation of arterial blood pressure.
  • In short do only the basics.. Even firdaus will b enough..
    Imp tpcs as per other students told
    From cell.. Functions of organelles + micro RNA

    N&M .. Values like RMP , walk along theory , basic def, sk muscle types,prop of nerves
    Heart.. Values of pressures in atria n ventricles were asked frequently .. AV delay n imp, ECG , re entry signal, last chap is imp
    Circulation.. Shock, cardiac failure , AP regulation (firdaus is enough)
    Respo .. Regulation wala chap imp.. Apneostic centre.. Which phase is passive? Which phase lasts longer? How is ramp signal controlled .. She used the word brake signal for it.. Resp volumes n capacities .. Dead space imp.. Ventilation perfusion ratio
    Blood.. Functions of cells like leukocytes, platelets..
    That's all I remember
  • Pressure of left ventricle during systole and diastole. 
    End diastolic volume- internal
    Cell organelles, why there is more negative charge on outside of cell, function of SER, volume of lungs and capacities, dysbarism- external.
  • External: which part of heart last to be depolarised. Arterial pressure regulation mechanism. Short term regulation. Cns ischemic response. Second heart in body. T cells classifications (memory T cells also included )
    Internal: ribosomes, pulmonary ventilation, rigor mortis
  • Internal- can tidal volume be increased or decreased?
    Vital capacity is greater in: thin/obese , in lying position or standing?
    Function of lysosomes, 

    External- everything about erythropoiesis, baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, thalessemia, local blood flow,
  •  Tital volume
    Alveolar ventilation
    Breathing
    Control centre of respiration
    Action potential and questions related to it..External
    Importance of right atrium
    Coronary circulation
    ECG
    PR interval
    Blocks
    Internal
  • External: residual volume, conditions that increase residual volume, RMP, properties of nerve fibers, all or nothing principle.
    Internal: functions of platelets, cardiogenic shock, difference in physical appearance in septic shock and hemorrhagic shock, burn shock, normal cardiac output, the dangerous level of cardiac output
  • External: def n exp of feedback mechanism, feedback gain, formula, time of 1 breath, duration of inspiration n expiration, how expiration takes place n y it is long, resp distress syn, its treatmnt, degeneration n regeneration of nerve, imp of AV nodal delay, walk along theory, myosin.
  • internal current of injury,,transfusion reaction in the matched blood,,reactive hyperemia,,methods to measure cardiac output,,External :layers of respiratory membrane,,surfactant ,,,surface tension,,,function of Ca++ in the surfactant(spreading),,,end plate potential,,miniature end plate potential,,inhibitor and excitatory end plate potential....
  • Internal: eosinophilz funtion nd causes of AV block... cause normal AV delay.. 
    External: ramp signal, ventral respiratory group, RER funtions, NM junction cmplete.
  • External:
    Composition of blood...
    I startd with 45% hematocrit....she said ,dont say hematocrit or i'l ask u how to measure in lab....so she askd.....i did not know...she wrote on the ppr "centrifuge"...

    Then she again asked composition of blood....
    Most abundant protein
    Its func.
    Hypertension...
    She asked if patient has 141/91, u would mark him as hypertensive???

    Goldblatt hypertension..
    First degree heart block..

    Most of the students out of tension, answer the easiest ques wrongly.....including me...n she really gets infuriated at that....
    So think b4 speak....she will give you time....she is not that bad...but our performance really matters in setting her mood.
    (Plus do WBCs sizes...it was freq being asked)

    Internal:
    Cell membrane func
    Pressure of oxy in alveolar air and venous blood
    Diffusion coefficient
    Acclimatization changes in body at high altitude
    Transport of CO2

    Some students were made to draw ventricular volume pressure graphs.
  •  Internal: platelet functions
    Cardiogenic shock
    End systolic and diastolic volume
    Ejection fraction
    External:nucleus functions
    Transcription
    Electrotonic conduction
    Patch clamp method
    How actionpotential measured(CRO)
    How functional residual capacity measured
    What is spirometer
  • Internal : RBC Functions
    Define shock
    Cardiogenic shock

    Person can survive how much degree of burn
    Blood volume % and value at compensated shock
    Minimum cardiac output value at which kidney functions are normal
    Intermediate term regulation of arterial bp
    Measurement of cardiac output, methods explain

    External : sarcomere
    Chemoreceptors
    Transport types across cell membrane
  • Internal: functions of RBCs
    Regulation of blood pressure
    Function of left ventricle and its pressures

    Types of blood flow
    Packed cell volume
    Reactive hyperemia, reynold's number.
    External: structure & functions of cell membrane
    Glycocalyx & its functions
    Excitation contraction coupling
    Ryanodine receptor channels
    Def. Lung compliance
    Either lung compliance is greater or lung - thorax combined & why.
  •  External:reticulocytosis,aplastic anemia,test to confirm it,causes of aplastic anemia,murmur,bruit(pronounced as bruee),
    Internal:neuromuscular transmission, factors affecting it,chemotactic center,
  • External: secondary active transport, neuromuscular 
    junction,volume of lungs and capacities, dysbarism 
    Internal: RBC function, ECG. method of recording, dif, between fibrillation and flutter, causes of fib.
  • External: secondary active transport, neuromuscular 
    junction,volume of lungs and capacities, dysbarism 
    Internal: RBC function, ECG. method of recording, dif, between fibrillation and flutter, causes of fib.
  • External:
    Action potential(of nerve, muscle, difference,which is greater and why)
    Refractory period(definition,types,difference,show in diagram)
    Latent period(Definition,diagram )
    Decompression sickness(asked its other names, definition)

    Internal
    Functions of RBC
    Conduction pathway of heart
    Internodal pathway
    SA node(why its the pacemaker)
    In which case QRS complex is broadened.
  • External: Can you name any anti-coagulants in the blood? What happens to coronary arteries during systole and diastole? Percentage of cardiac output to coronary arteries? What is Christmas factor? What are clotting factors? How many are they? Name the factors in sequence. What is hemophilia? What is its cause? What happens to bleeding time and clotting time in hemophilia? Why is the bleeding time not affected? What is clotting time? Normal clotting time? Normal bleeding time?Types of hemophilia? Which clotting factors are affected in VitK deficiency? are you missing any? (Factor 3 is also affected) What is Factor 3? Other names? What is vasomotor centre? Its parts? Its location? Immediate control of arterial pressure? Chemoreceptor control? Baroreceptor reflex? Mechanism of baroreceptor reflex. Normally our body is under what effect? Sympathetic or parasympathetic? (She said its under parasympathetic effect). What is our cardiac output under sympathetic effect? Okay go. I stood up. What reflex did just start in your body for your arterial control? what would have happened if it didnt? In how many seconds did it start? (Me: A few seconds. Ma'am: in 0.21sth seconds)

    Internal: Functions of cell membrane. What is myasthenia gravis? Other autoimmune diseases? What is tidal volume? What is total lung capacity? Its value? Vital Capacity? Its value? Can you insrease your vital capacity? How?

    Practical VIVA external: What fluid do you use in RBC count? Its composition? Functions of its components. Characteristics of the pipettes used in RBC and WBC count. Dilution Factor? Why is it not 202?

    Practical VIVA Internal: Procedure of Ascultation of precordium? Sounds heard? What is S1? S2? characteristics of these sounds?
  • External:
    Functions of centrioles
    Function of cilia in resporatory passages

    Neuromuscular junction
    Bohr's effect in tissues and lungs
    Largest particle that can reach the alveoli

    Internal:
    Functions of neutrophils
    Functions of right atrium
    Direction of current flow in heart
    Mechanisms of short term and long term control of arterial pressure
    ECG
    Current of injury
  • External: Sinus ryhtmia and aryhtmia
    Pulse in inspiration and expiration
    Paroxysmal tachcarida

    Kernicterus
    Rh antigens and the pattern in which they are inherited
    Causes of AVN delay...
    Internal:
    Functions of lysosomes
    RMP and action potential
    Excitation contraction coupling
    Role of T tubules
    Pulmonary function tests
    Obstructive vs Restrictive diseases with examples
  •  External
    how heat loss occurs in organisms hving hairy skin? Panting? Frm where air is removed during panting? ST segment? Eosinophila? How it dvelops? Cardaic output? Cardaic failure? What is indicated by waves of ECG? ECG?
    Internal
    functions of plasma membrane? Tidal vol? Vital capacity? How tidal vol increases?
  • EXTERNAL:
    *Functions of Mitochondria...
    *Latch Mechanism, kin muscles me hota hai; I told her smooth muscle Jis par she asked kay kis type of smooth muscles me...

    *Stages of Action Potential in smooth muscles
    *Muscles Of Active Expiration
    INTERNAL:
    *Define ECG
    *Define Stroke Volume Output
    *Functions of RBCs
    *Blood pressure regulating mechanisms
    *Intermediate mechanism of blood pressure regulation
    PS : Functions pehla hi suna rahe hote hain aur definitions kay initial words hi bol rahe hote hain tou mam samia question change kr deti hain...
    Yani kay humain details na bhi pata hon tou khair hai... 
  • Internal: Rbcs functions. . ECG. augmented leads.. peaked P Wave
    External: co transport.. properties of nerve fiber.. chemoreceptor centre of respiration
  • Int- functions of cell membrane, myasthenia gravis treatment, hypoxia, rigor mortis, excitation contracting coupling
    Ext was very cute and she was asked about platelet plug, megakaryocytes, tachycardia, anxiety , wienke bache block , weinke batch fibers
  • External: 3rd degree AV Block, Stoke Adams Syndrome,
    Thrombocyte, Thrombocytopenia, purpura !
    Internal: Sequence of events at neuromuscular junction,

    Role of Ca in Contraction, FEV1, Obstructive and Restrictive lung diseases !
  • Ext : Type C nerve fibre,wallerian degeneration,transpulmonary pressure,lung compliance,nitrogen narcosis,mitochondria,ribosome,micro RNA Int: Supraventricular tachycardia.function of eosinophils,prolongation of QRS complex
  •  Ext: types of summation,characteristics of skeletal muscle,cyanosis(conc of deoxy hb causing cyanosis),dyspnea,aortic coarctation
    Int: MI,effects of aortic valve incompetence on lung and syst circulation,glolgi funct
  • External : What is positive feedback? FRC, define it. How do we measure FRC. What is Nernst Potential. What is Nersnt Potential of Na.

    Internal: ECG kya hota ha? QRS segment? Atrial Depolarizartion ka segment konsa? What is P-R segment. Aortic S
    tenosis me kya hota ha? Turbulent or streamline flow? What is Reynold number? Renold phenomenon pta? (I didn't know ) so she asked What is Avogadro's Number? Define it. (Well i did) Theek ha jao.
  • External :
    Membrane structure it's head and tail , hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends and capacity of diffusion , it's diffusing capability with O and CO and carbon di oxide . How do we measure diffusion coefficient ( method ) . Regulatory proteins in c
    ontraction ( only troponin and tropomyosin Mam asserted on it )

    Internal : nothing new and quite easy questions like platelet functions , pressure changes in left ventricle and it's function !
  • External:
    Central receptors of respiration? Location? Function of lysosomes?


    Internal:
    PR interval denotes what? Why QRS prolong? How nerve impulse is generated...?
  •  External :cell membrane composition.how nerve impulse travels .temporal and spatial summation .miniature action potential .how we measure functional residual capacity .name acetylcholine receptors .
    Internal : right atrial pressure.factors affecting venous return .blood pressure control mechanisms.
  • Internal: eosinophils, ecg, speed of ecg paper, min. voltage of QRS complex, augmented limb leads, pr interval

    External: insp. reserve volume, VC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC when it increases? What happens in restrictive diseases? Regulatory proteins of muscle contraction, power stroke, how is power stroke culminated, facilitated diffusion.
  • internal:
    what is forward feed mechanism. co transport and respiratory membrane.


    external:
    what is anemia. its types. difference btw megaloblastic and pernicious anemia. barorecptors. at what pressure do we declare that the patient has postural hypotension?
  • calculate residual volume ?? formula ?? calculate expiratory reserve volume....significance of residual volume...effect of lung collapse on body.....composition and production of surfactant......why neonates lung collapse easily....explain your answer with a formula given in gyton
  •  external types of blood flow blood pressure structure of Hb types of Hb
  • Internal: functions of lysosomes, ramp signal, decompression sickness
  • External: what is blood? Composition, Plasma proteins, Functions, Concentration of albumin, Globulin, AG Ratio. Iski Importance, Baroreceptor reflex, importance of av nodal delay
  • Int:functions of rbcs, classify shocks 
    Ext:apnea, dyspnoea,why we cannot hold our breathe for long time?,primary active transport? How sodium n potassium maintain fluid balance in our body?
  •  Internal: Func of thrombocytes; tachycardia; supraventricular tachycardias; ventricular rhythm; vol of blood pumped each sys and diastole in coronary arteries. Special features of coronary circulation
  • External: dysbarism; contracture; kinds of periodic breathing; biots breathing ( I think this was the word) Func of lysosomes; ... aur
    Mmmmmm.. Bs.. wink emoticon
  • External:
    Role of skin in temperature regulation, how insensible heat loss occurs, what is Rh factor, can 1st newborn be erythrobalstic if it is Rh +ve n mother is Rh -ve, types of blood flow, prevention of erythroblastosis fetalis, duration of QRS complex.
    Internal:

    Function of Golgi apparatus, define threshold, FEV1, difference b/w obstructive n restrictive diseases.
  • External:plasma protein function...hypoprotinemia cause... (edema)..wht type of edema (pitting or non-pitting...hv no idea wht ths is)...def of shock..name pacemaker...what are Starling forces

    INternal:funct of mitochondria...what is oncofenic (carcinogen)..name sm carcinogens...wht do u mean by sarcoplasm...rigor mortis...
  •  External: blood, RBC conc, why are diff in men n women, fate of RBC after their life span, life span of RBC , chemoreceptors are particularly specific for detection of what? (Oxygen not CO2), what is ECG , no of limb leads, changes in ECG in left ventricular hypertrophy, axis deviation

    Internal: function of mitochondria, function of smooth muscle, threshold potential, its values for sk smooth n nerve fibre, respiratory membrane, its function

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