1st Year : Physiology Tests/ Prof Viva Questions

Exam Type
Question Asked
Correct Answer

Class tests/send ups
What is a neuroma?
Dr. Akram

Class tests/send ups
What is the mechanism of death by hanging?
Dr. Akram

Class tests/send ups
what is reticulocyte count?

Class tests/send ups
What are kidney function tests?
Dr. M Akram

Class tests/send ups
How do you detect a renal cyst?
Dr. M Akram

Class tests/send ups
What is the cause of edema in chronic renal disease?
Dr. M Akram

Class tests/send ups
inulin clearance?
Dr. M Akram

Class tests/send ups
Give the single lined mechanism of urine formation
Dr. M Akram

Class tests/send ups
How do you detect tumors in a kidney?
Dr. M Akram

Class tests/send ups
kidney is a glycogenic organ. how?
Dr. M Akram

Class tests/send ups
How will u measure ECF?
How will you measure ISF (interstitial fluid)
how will you measure ICF?
Dr. M Akram

Class tests/send ups
draw pH-HCO3 diagram..normal

Class tests/send ups
Draw pH-HCO3 diagram....metabolic acidosis

Class tests/send ups
NAME the hormones of kidney?
...RENIN-angiotension system

Class tests/send ups
EXplain REnin-Angiotension system ...

Class tests/send ups

Class tests/send ups

Causes of osmotic fragility ?
Diff b/w neutrophil and monocyte ?
Treppe ? its mechanism?
Effect of hyperkalaemia on pacemaker potential?
Venipuncture ? skin puncture ?
Allergic purpura ?
Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia? ECG in it ?
What is forward grouping and reverse grouping ?
Factors affecting ESR ? mechanism of rise in ESR ?
Effect of hyperkalaemia on ECG ?
Characteristics of P cells ?
Factors affecting the quality of blood tests and their values ?
Characteristics of WEDGE technique ?
Features of small vessel haemorrhage ?
Significance of shape of RBC ?
Thrombocytopenic purpura ?
Physiological polycythemia ?
Causes of spontaneous bleeding ?
Blood doping ? why is it banned ?
Extra systole ?
Define cardiac index , cardiac reserve , cardiac tamponade
Steps and objectives of spinal pithing ?
Reactions of Hb with 02 , CO2 and CO ?
Effect of vagal stimulation on frog’s heart ?
Spirometry ?name pulmonary function tests to diagnose Obstructive respiratory diseases.
Methods to determine the heart rate of frog ?
Diff b/w monocyte and eosinophil ?
What are the indications of veni-puncture and skin puncture ?
Changes in pulmonary blood flow during space travel ?
3 causes of metabolic alkalosis ?
Cause of anaemia during pregnancy “?
Factors that decrease the stroke volume and physiological variants of stroke volume ?
Diagnostic features of anaemia ?
factors decreasing ESR ?
Explain slowing down of heart rate on account of VAGAL Stimulation ?
Thrombocytopenic purpura ?
Why there’s in some people ‘prolongation of bleeding time ‘ ?
What is clotting time ? haemophillia ? name ‘some’ clotting factors . 

Class tests/send ups
what is JGa?
where in kidney is renin produced?
prof akram

Class tests/send ups
what is Intravenous venous pyelography (IVP)?
Sir Akram

Class tests/send ups
Oxygen debt and its value
sir awais

Professional (Annual)
Principle of dialysis?
Dr Akram

Azka Munawar
Professional (Annual)
what is Athlete's heart
Dr. Akram

Professional (Annual)
values of following should be known for viva(prac plus Major)
RBC count in male ,female ,neonate
reticulocyte count in adult and neonate
diff leukocyte counts
ESR in young/aged male , young/aged female , neonate , 10 yrd child (and also the reason for difference in ESR )
Whts the ESR value in Multiple Myeloma (it is above 100 in almost every case, study explanation from net)
Why ESR wld rise in diabetes Mellitus (as fibrinogen level in plasma is raised, same is the case in pregnancy, and diseases in which C-protein level is raised)
whts the significance of reticulocyte count?
DRAW platelet !
draw counter current exchanger / multiplier
draw smooth muscle /skeletal muscle Action potential.
only define these laws of circulation (Poiseuille's Law / darcy's law /reynolds number/dalton's law/ohms law) .. applications of laws not asked....
define hypertension and krotokoff’s Sounds…
whts the thumb rule for hypertension ...
wht do you know about sympathetic vasodilator and vasoconstrictor ?
give any example of ANTIPORT in skin !!!
conduction velocity wld be fast in "peripheral nerve " or in "cutaneous nerve"....xlolx
which lead in ECG , either bipolar or unipolar would show max. results in mV(these are UNIPOLAR AUGMENTED limb leads, they are called "augmented" only because of the fact that they augment ECG trace on y axis(milli volts) is max in them).....
Name the ions that have role in generation of SA node Pre Ptential....(study mushtaque)
T wave would be inverted in which diseases ?
whats the connection relation b/w vasoconstrictor and vasodialator centres of brain stem( vasodilator area 'may' send inhibitory impulses to vasoconstrictor if req)
name the muscle where both the Na/K and Na/Ca pumps are present in plasma membrane...(cardiac muscle)
what would happen if you are sent to height of 20,000 feet .xlolx
when you eat citrus fruits , can it lead to ACIDOSIS ?
what is polycythaemia vera ?
Can there be any "abnormal" or unexpected answer during use of equation for standard urea clearance ?
Sympathetic vasodilator are found in ?? (liver ,muscle , coronary artery…) 

MAM fareeda and Prof . Akram Sb.

Agent X
Professional (Annual)
Physiology ..following questions from all boys....what r sodomotor fibers... preganglionic and postganglionic fibers. hb count in rbc. draw haldane effect. action potential of nerve smooth muscle and skeletal muscle... blockers of muscle specially botulin toxins. neuromuscular junction,.mysthenia gravis.diff between action potential and rmp..neuroglia.rbs wbc platelet formation and count.what is hem. buffering by which compartment and organ is most impotant.ph.write down it.WHAT IS MOUNT EVEREST IN UTERO?what is azotemia.uremia.glucosuria.causes.splay causes.gfr def. mechanisma how will u identify it.if kidney is damaged what would be effect on kidney.What is artificial kidey. define the losses of blood.myoglobin and hemoglobin diff. curves .reason.cortico and jutamedullary nephrons diff. normal urea excreted and what is source. erythroblastosis foetalis.anemia types.polycythemia vera and primary polycythemia. what IS ASPHXIA AND TYPES AND CAUSES>cyanosis causes.reason. prepotential.draw it. diff.between atrial flutter and fibrillation. bundle block effect on ecg. wenkebatch phenomenon.efeect of k on heart mechanism. baroreflex. glomerular shunts. typers of blood vessels.hypertension types. Cardiac output.purpura.diff between counter current echanger and mechanism. pct importance.Renal thereshold. TMG.micturation curve.micturation mechanism...re and post renal failure.treppe phenomen.thrombocytothelia.esr mechanisam and types difference. cloting pathways,function of platelets
u know it better.
Professional (Annual)
1>show diagrammatically diff b/w neurogenic reflex bladderr an reflex bladder.....
2>atonic bladder
3> composition of membrane, ATPase ka function, membrane potential ka faida..
bht laiq bachon se ANS k blocker b, nerve sir k jaan he iska to taqreeba her topic, types of mixed nerve fibres, A,B,C an inki sub types yani wo tables parh lena
4> types of nerve fibres, types of motor nerves,
5>pseudo unipolar neuron,synapse, inhibition, excitation, delayed discharge,berstain hypothesis, properties of nerve, saline bridge exp, conduction band kyu ho jati he,
6>automaticity, iske evidences, factors controlling it, pre potential, iska graph, an sab kuch, ye bht imprtntn he, kypo and hyper kalaemia an calcemia,fibrillation, flutter,arterial pulse draw kerna,cardiac cycle kerna,uske phases, time periods, sounds, especially 1st an 2nd, ECG bht imprtnt he....
7>shock, microcirculation, types of blood vessels, windkessel effect, pre capillary sphicter, an most important k apke pass patient aya he with pain in chest to kia karo g?
8>afterload, b.p,ischaemia, injury or infarction me ECG ka faraq and iski reason,
9>bladder achi trah kro 
consult sirz book
Professional (Annual)
1> asked to draw curve of fank starling law,
2>nerve ka, pacemaker ka, smooth muscle ka, C type fibres ka, skeletal muscla ka action potential ka graph an phir usko bht detail me sunti hain
3>wats the properties of cardiac muscle, mechanism or ventilation,wats Hb, alveolar interdependace
4>Fickz principle, neuromuscle blockers
5>pulomonary tests, spirometry, dead space, hypoxia ka effect on pul.respiration
6>erythropoitin ka sab kuch, manufacturing, transport and iska action
7>bladder pressure chnges ka graph banwati hain
8>triple reaction an specially wo show kia kerta hai? maqsad kia he iska
9>sickle cell or is jesi or chezon me Esr kam kio ho jata he? logic?
10>RBC k indented shape kio he? nucleus wala point valid nai? koi actin ka chakkar he?
aisi shape ka faida
Allah hi jane.....lolzzzz
Professional (Annual)
wat is haeme to haeme association?
mam fareeda
Allah janta hai..
first 2 batches of girls
Professional (Annual)
giv an example of afterload in skeletal muscle.
mam fareeda
perhaps active tension in isometric contractionz.
first 2 batches of girls
Professional (Annual)
is the transport of oxygen a type of simple diffusion or facilitated?
mam fareeda
remember it is da transport of oxygen dat occurs mainly wid Hb,so facilitated, bt sm occurs in plasma as well,so also simple diffusion.
first 2 batches of girls.
Professional (Annual)
how ECF is measured clinically?
sir akram

Professional (Annual)
wat is obligatory absorption?
sir akram
absorption of water secondary to absorption of Na+.(but sir didnt accept it)
first 2 batches of girls
Professional (Annual)
from which parts of renal tubules, active reabsorption of water takes place?
sir akram
4m first 2 batches of girls.
Professional (Annual)
how FRC(functional residual capacity)is measured?
sir akram
method of mixing of helium in spirometer..
first 2 batches of girlz.
Professional (Annual)
sir akram(prac viva)
polymorphonuclear cells.

Professional (Annual)
wat r 4 different types of cells?
mam fareeda.(physio external)
connective tissue cells, nuscle cells,epithelial cells,nerve cells.
first 2 batches of girls.
Professional (Annual)
at which blood pressure CNS ischemic reflex operate?
mam fareeda
it is da last 2 operate n operates at 15-30mm Hg.
first 2 batches of girls.
Professional (Annual)
whats is saltatory conduction?
whats conduction velocity in a mylenated nerve fiber?
conduction velocity wud b greater in pre or postganglionic fiber? wud it b greater in a spinal nerve or cutaneous nerve? draw ecg of atrial fibrillation? shoe atrial repolarization on ecg..
sir skram

Professional (Annual)
what is asphyxia?
what are its types?
what PO2 in alveoli?
what is naemothorax?
what is haemoglobin thorax? :O
what is hypoxia?
what reactions take place in mitochondria?
which enzymes are involved?
what is intrapleural pressure?
how FRC is mesured?
mam farida

Professional (Annual)
contents of ECF...
K ion imbalance nerve ko zyada damage(harm) kare ga ya muscle ko..??
clinical imp. of RETICULOCYTES...
Effects on respiratory mechanism at 12000ft(:x)
Gray buk and `special concepts`...
Professional (Annual)
Granules of Basophils, Henry`s law of RMP...
Osmolarity values and pH in different segments of Nephron...
autoregulation of blud flow...
countercurrent exchange...
Axon reflex
Professional (Annual)
lung function test ``Other than SPIROMETRY``..??? (FREQ. ASKD)
Endocrinal role of heart...???
Standard and Maximal urea clearance..???
Imp graphs (other than of all AP`s) r frm Kidney and Spirometry...!!!
Professional (Annual)
ANP action(twofold action)...

Effect on micturation if section is cut b/w
Hypothalamus and Hypophysis??

How man can excrete more than normal urine Physiologically..???

METABOLIC and ENDOCRINAL FUNCTIONS of Kidney (frequently asked)...

Why Aneamia is caused in Renal Failure??

Amount of urea in blood and excreted in 24 hours? (freq. asked)

`Prothrombin time` define, explain $ Value...

Dialyzing machine, principle, Composition of DIALYZATE...

Conc. of Glucose in Diabetic pateints having RENAL FAILURE...

Difference b/w LYMPH & SERUM...
99% from his Gray buk...
Professional (Annual)
series and parallel elastic elements
in his prac note book...........samajh aa jaye to mujhe b btana
Professional (Annual)
city of troy
prof .akram
grey book(respiratory system)
Professional (Annual)
Physiology Pract
Determination of BP before and after exercise.
what will u do if sthetoscope is not working properly.
what will u do if sphygmanometer is not wroking properly
Mam Fareeda
just turn knob :P
Professional (Annual)
determination of extopic pacemaker by the application of stannius ligature.
related question was WHATS NODAL DELAY.
whats paroxymal atrial tachycardia?
why its called "ATRIAL" tachycardia?
he has cute smile during viva on his face.
ok tell me heart rate will increase or decrease.
whats the evidence that SA node is pacemaker?
what wil happen if SA node is excised?
so heart rate by ectopic pacemakers will be lower or greater?
chaloo man ka hee bata do :P
cute smile ,u r so happy today , kher tu hai :)
Professor Dr.Muhammad Akram :)
its coz of rentry of impulse
heart rate 160-220 etc told few things related to it.
Read experimental evidence in sir akram's book
heart will stop beating for sometime then ectopic pacemaker will take over the rhythm of heart.
i asked in return :P sir in frog or man??????:P :P
hmmmmmmmm it will increase...
and before he could trun i shouted loudly no no ,it will decrease.
Professional (Annual)
major viva
whats erythropoeisis?
what are general factors of erythropoeisis?
u r telling dietry factors , i am asking general factors.
she accepted hypoxia valid and asked for more general factors.
so u dont know general factors ...okay whats the normal amount of oxy carried by Hb
hmm draw oxygen curve
now xplain it
whats P50?
thats all
Mam fareeda
formation , maturation of RBC
iron , vitamin b12 , b6...
.....confused by previous comment i could just say 1.39 ml........forgot the rest
drew the curve and xplained
pressure at which half of Hb is saturetd with oxygen.
it was not a good experince coz of her comment.LUCKILY SIR AKRAM was busy on computer and didnt listen to my external viva.he was away :P
Professional (Annual)
He smiles in his special style :)
looks at record card
scrolls skecth buk twice.
he commnted "so much stressed,hands trembling :P sit relaxed and dont worry."
whats pacemaker potential?
whats the effect of parasympathetic stimulation on heart?
incre......kept smiling in his special style.
from my xplanation he asked next quest ok then draw normal slope and the change in slope on parasym stimulation
functions of myelin
how impulse travels in myelinated nerves
thats all.
Professor Dr.Muhammad Akram
told some selfmade definition of pacemaker potential which he accepted :P
sir it increases and then instanlty shouted again repeating pract viva history nooo sir it decreases coz of acetylcholine and change in slope of potential, tried to make slope with my finger on table ,thats y he asked me to draw on paper with ball pen.
he accepted both graphs.
nutrition , protection , speed increase , conservation of space , energey,....his book headings
saltatory conduction , node to node and to add some efficiency i mentioned saline bridge experiment :P
Professional (Annual)
blood pressure pract had following short quest with it

What are Krotorf Sounds?explain them.something like this.
Ma'am Fareeda
one thing imp related to bp practical :
systolic pressure increases after exericse and diastolic pressure SHOULD DECREASE after exercise.and the reason is vasodilataion.
Professional (Annual)
functions of platelet.
functions of myelin.
action potential.
its properties.
how action potential travels in nerve?
types of abnormal breathing
cosmole breathing.
ma'am fareeda

Nouman Shakoor
Professional (Annual)
family and city history :p
what is fluid
its distributition
name some transcellular fluid
functions of CSF
what is lymph
his lecture notes
Anas posting on behalf of Nouman Shakoor
Professional (Annual)
what is GFR .
its value
whats windkessel effect.
in which disease its lost?
what is left ventricular pressure?

Nouman Shakoor
Professional (Annual)
Intrapleural pressure, fluid homeostasis
Prof. Akram
-2.5mmHg normal , -6mmHg during inspiration, maximun -30mmHg, Explanation of ECF regulation chart given in "KIDNEY"
Professional (Annual)
What is Na/K Pump?
What is the benefit of Na/K pump inhibition?
What is the spinal micturition centre?
What is reflex neurogenic and atonic bladder?

Professional (Annual)
What are blood groups?
Classify the blodd grps?
What is Landsteiner law?
Who is universal donor?
What is the composition of alveolar air?

Professional (Annual)
1.How BV are classified?
2.What are the evident structural changes observed in vessels from Windkessel to Pre-capillary arterioles?
3.Define vasomotion?
4.How ECF is measured clinically?
1.functional classification of BV"s
2.inc. in wall thickness to lumen ratio
3.autoregulation of blood flow{CVS}
4.Determination of plasma sodium level and then application of proper formula as in renal physiology of text book(this is only proposed correct answer)CITATION NEEDED
Professional (Annual)
1.What are the prop. of nerve fibers?
2.What is the difference between absolute and relative refractory periods?
3.What are cell junctions?what are their individual locations?
4.Define cardiac cycle?what is the duration of slow ejection phase?what is its significance?

Professional (Annual)
1.What are the prop. of nerve fibers?
2.What is the difference between absolute and relative refractory periods?
3.What are cell junctions?what are their individual locations?
4.Define cardiac cycle?what is the duration of slow ejection phase?what is its significance?

Professional (Annual)
1.what is MAP?
2.What is this called?(STETH.)
3.what is effect of temp. variation on heart?
int n ext

Professional (Annual)
1 wat is myelogenesis?
2 wat kind of conduction is found in myelinatd nerves
3wat is cathode ray osciloscope
4 wat is a vektor
5wat is a dipole
6 is current of injury monophasic or biphasic?
maam fareeda
see guyton
sara atiq
Professional (Annual)
1 wat r the functions of the pericardium
2 wat r the functions of the rite ventricle
dr akram
try n just gv the headings, n for the functions of right atrium sa node shud cum 1st!!
sara atiq
Professional (Annual)
diff b/w action potential n end plate potential....what is PAT...pathophysiology draw kro...ecg draw kro...n sir ksi ka PAT manty e ni:p....even jo apni book me likha ha wo b ni manty.....what is syncope...PAT me syncope hoti ha?....lolx
sir akram
sir ko he pta ho...lolx
Professional (Annual)
How would you measure E.C.F?

How would you measure Total Body Water?
Prof Akram Prof 2009
consult the chapter of kidney.there is a looooong part in it pertaining to fliud and electrolytes( i never read it ).I knew sir asks this Question,still didn't prepared it and alas ! waiting for the outcome. = (
Sadaf Hafeez
Professional (Annual)
how urine output is regulated?
wht is filtration fraction?
dif bw polyuria and diuresis?
stimulus for release of ADH?
wht are determinants of GFR?
Prof.Dr.Muhammad Akram

haisam abid
Professional (Annual)
taking my sketch copy in his hand n looking at my result card the first question he asked ws: wat is nerve impulse?
wen i opened my pen n ws about 2 draw sumthing related to nerve impulse he said... spinal micturition reflex... then he put a line n said if both these r cut what will happen?
what z urge incontinence?
ok Thank u... you may leave
Sir Akram
Sir akram's buk
i was drwing slowly n beautifully n then he said "be quick please"
n at once diagram ws there...
atonic bladder...overflow incontinence n rest all r written in gray buk
Gray Book
Professional (Annual)
it ws a rapid fire round:
after thinking a lot she started... what is the difference btw plasma n glomerular filtrate?
percentage of water absorption in diff parts of nephron... PCT...
ok good... rest of the questions were from sir akram's book... were v. easy but i m sorry i dun remember... the only question out of book ws the one i ve already written... she ws giving 14 15 marks to evry1 n ws repeating questions... so dun worry about her tho u r supposed to impress her more than sir akram
proteins, blood cells etc etc... spoke everything wich i could in the time given... lolx
Professional (Supply)
1.what isthe difference betweenhomeostasis and haemostasis
2.what r the mechanisms of haemostasis
3. is the contraction of vessels in haemostasis due to local effect or neural effect
4.what is complenent system
5.does it work only by opsonization
6. draw a monocyte...is it a granulocyte or agranulocyte
7.draw eithoven's triangle
8.what is vector
9.give the directions of standard limb leads
6.monocyte is classically classified as agranulocyte but actually it is agranulocyte

9.according to externallead III points from left foot to left hand....grey bk says it points from left hand to left foot
Sadaf Naseer
Professional (Supply)
1.at is EDV
2.what is the effect of increase in EDV on cardiac output?
3.by what mechanism
2.it increases
3.Frank Starling MEchanism
Sadaf Naseer


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