4th Year: ENT viva

and now finally the horror of ENT viva as everyone likes to put it ... though i didnt find it tht scary after all... firstly u need to know with which unit u have the long case ... if ur batch has unit 2 written infront of it in the date sheet then u would be having ur long case and table viva in unit 2 and short case in unit 1... vice versa fr the other way arnd....
the viva starts at 9 00 am .... u need the bring the following on the day of ur viva
1. head mirror
2.ward cards (third and fourth yr)
3.Ent assignment
4.Ent history copy

first up u get alloted the long case roll number wise.... 2 students at one bed.. u can be the only student at the bed too... u have to take a detailed history and examine ur patient...slit lamp and instruments are available in the ward fr examination ... most of the patients are post op.. so tht muchh examination isnt requires... u have to write down the history and examination on the given sheets along with the Differential diagnosis of ur case... then starts the table viva with the respective professor of the ward u have long case in ... mine was unit too so i had my table viva with Dr. pal.... he has infront of him instruments ... though he didnt ask me anything .. the xternal took my entire viva... u are asked to identify one or two instruments and then a few other ques either related to the surgeries or randomly... so do the surgeries well enough.... no need to fret about this viva ... goes smoothly enough... easy questions are asked just dont panic...
next up was short case which in my case was with unit 1.... ours was taken by dr maruf... just asked me to perform anterior rhinoscopy and almost every other student as well..
and then finally the long case viva... which was taken at the bedside by external....he asks questions related to ur case... the signs symptoms.. treatment... surgery.. indications/contra indications... complacations of surgery...

VIVA Questions Complied by Class of 2012

ENT UNIT 1 Major Case Batches

just cncntrate on external viva.... 
EXTERNAL...  identify tonsil holding forcep,  identify all the instrumnts used in tonsilectomy,epithelium on medial surface of tonsils, crypta magna and its clinical imprtnce, quinsy and its S/S, mastoid antrum and its location, mastoid air cells , pyramid, stapedius function and how to check its fuction, and two scenarios regarding vertigo ... flamingo reflex nd y it appears..
SIR AZHAR... occult primary and how to diagnose it, sub mucus palate, vn to operate on this, incidence of ear infctns increases in this condition if yes thn y, achlasia cardia treatmnt.
no neeed of intro or consent... just focus on the given comand...
at end a simple qustn and a precise answr is expctd...
comand.. examine left ear of patient...
qustn... how to treat otomycosis... 
LONG CASE...  easy and mostly regarding ur case... make D/D SENSIBLY COZ QUSTNZ ONLY REGARDING UR D/D
ent unit1 long case
kindly be there by 8.30 they start exactly at 9 or before 9
ur bed will be allocated start wid history n so
they will calll u for table viva..both sir azhar n external..external i nice composed person so stay calm.. external : differentiate between polyp n turbinate n different types of polyps n differences , csom, which perforation more dangerous pars flaccida or pars tensa one? radical neck dissection indication n incisions, sir azhar may or may not ask any question! sir azhar asked where semicircular canals open? (these all i cud remember ryt now)
long case viva sir azhar tuk..nd mine was post op tonsillectomy.. he asked wat we will do after that! n u r half to ur answer n he says fine! similarly there were cases of nasal trauma laryngeal ca, so one or few things related to them!
short case sir pal!
examine the vestibule ant rhinoscopy.. nd surgical ops in lateral wall n laters he may ask anything from where u take him!!
nd for other commands..
he gave the command to examine tonsils..do oral cavity examination nd EXAMINE THE LYMPH NODES..(dnt forget lymph node) nd u dunt hav to atke consent in short case for sir pal!!
do read sir pal ear notes!! he asks treament from those!


difference b/w sinus and fistula,  occult primary,occult secondary,MOST important thyroid function test, tract of branchial fistula,what is Allergy,Anergy,Energy :-),use of ETT,gases given in anesthesia,define coma(unconsciousness fr more than 6 hrs and unresponsive to pain,touch,pressure),diff b/w coma and aesthetized patient.
EXTERNAL sitting  wid DR AZHAR
section of CT scan,identify the structures (pointed towards maxillary sinus, inf turbinate, ethmoid sinus, can u see pathology in any sinus?), orbital complications of sinusitis, D/D of mass in nasal cavity,right recurrent laryngeal paralysis causes.
short case DR PAL :
command; examine the tonsils(see tonsil +lymph nodes),perform anterior rhinoscopy,perform otoscopy
viva: external and internal waldeyer ring, a man presenting wid pathology of palatal arches, tonsils, base of tongue,and epiglottis, what is the treatment?,treatment of perforated dry Tympanic membrane(tell underlay meringoplasty technique first),graft of meringoplasty taken from?
he even dont come at bedside,he just asks diagnosis n treatment of the case.. most of the cases are DNS, post op DNS,CSOM..,

unit 1 table viva: incisions of neck,thyroidectomy,parotidectomy,calculous most common in which salivary gland,incisions of submaindibular gland n its removal n nerve at risk in it,constricter muscles n their nerve supply,killian's dehiscence,treatment of pharyngeal pouch....
ENT TABLE  VIVA  UNIT 1.. both external and internal sitting togrther...  wt r primary colours. significance  of  blue colour line in endotracheal tube.. stridor types wt  type of stridor in lower tracheal  lesion nd is called (wheezing).. laryngomalacia and treatment.. tympanic membrane  diameter .. nerve suply of stapedius.. wt type  of  cartilage  epiglotis is.. .......
long case viva..  diagnosis . examine facial nerve .. from where it arise  route.. 
prof pal.. do left ear otoscopy  treatmentn of central perforation  plz told him we will  clear  any pathology in thorat pror to myringoplasty.....

With sir azhar u can expect almost any kind of question, his range of questions is too broad..external mostly asks simple stuf only..u shud know well abt the normal structures on a ct, he asks a lot abt them..adenoidectomy complications indications, child with an upper resp tract infec after few days presents with proptosis, d/d? Y shud a nasal boil be respected, its Rx, difference b/w cavernous sinus thrombosis nd orbital cellulitis, Rx of a septal hematoma nd its complications, differnces of septoplasty n smr..
Sir pal..b very vigilant while examining ur patient, he even asks on which side is the patient wearing her nose pin n u cant look back at the patient to confirm..questions abt the anatomy of nose..Good Luck
external of unit one is very nice...Sir azhar start with joky questions like what is ocean,negligience,third party negligence,Nimko khao gay:-) i took a lil bit :-)

Marks distribution I thnk is --------table viva 30 marks ,short case 30, long case 20 , copy 10 marks,10 internal assessment.......Best ov luck

 Sir pal's questions in short case: flamingo reflex , level of jugulodiagastric in lymph nodes classification

Management of acute corrosive esophagitis, cause of death in this
~Central vs peripheral nystagmus (except dix hallpike thing) he said k patient saamne betha hai, how will you differentiate
~Root value of auriculotemporal nerve -.- (its a cranial nerve so no root value??)

unit 1 table viva: incisions of neck,thyroidectomy,parotid
ectomy,calculous most common in which salivary gland,incisions of submaindibular gland n its removal n nerve at risk in it,constricter muscles n their nerve supply,killian's dehiscence,treatment of pharyngeal pouch

A total nightmare. Lives up to its name.
sir azhar table viva:
 A 30 year old female with conductive deafness with no visible abnormality in the middle ear and has an intact tympanic membrane. diagnosis?(otosclerosis)
Which abscess of the neck is non-fluctuant? (Ludwigs angina)
Collar stud abscess?
What passes through the tracheoesophageal groove?
Strap Muscles? function. nerve supply. attachments
Cold abscess? most common cause of cold abscess in our country?

External table viva:
what is this? tracheostomy tube. indications for tracheostomy? incisions for tracheostomy. landmarks? what structures will you retract? difference between the posterior and anterior wall of trachea? Posteiror relations of trachea? fluid behing intact tympanic membrane is?

Long case taken by the external: 
i got chronic tonsillitis. present ur case? methods for tonsillectomy? structures forming tonsillar bed?

Short case by sir Pal:
examine the left ear.
surgeries for atticoantral cholesteatoma?
appraoch for cortical mastoidectomy?
serious complication of mastoidectomy? (only facial paralysis)
post op drooping of face following mastoidectomy? treatment? ( just remove the packing which is compressing the nerve)
Long case by externall unit 1:
tympanic membrane parts and umbo
acute suppurative ottitis media otoscopic finding
stages of acute suppurative ottitis media
indications of myringotomy
short case by sir pal:
  1. 3 students at a time go inside
focus light on left ear
insert otoscope in left ear
treatment wax n complication of syringing

  Sir azhar just sat quietly durin my table viva and didnt ask any que...rather the external took my viva ....started wid a  scenario...a 12 yr old boy had sore throat,,ear infection and persistent nasal infection,,now has come wid orbtal cellulitus..wts the d/d and complications???hw will u manage orbital cellulitis??
   a 30yr Old hd CSOM but now became unconscious ...wts the d/d??wt r the various complications of CSOM??
 a young diabtic female came to u with a black mass in nasal cavity..wts the d/d??
a child with movable swelling in the region of SCM wts the d/d??
clinical significance of foramen caecum??
wts malignant otits externa??
  mine was post op CSOM...and he just asked WHTS IT AND WHAT IS THE TREATMNT OF ATTICOANTRAL CSOM???
 If sir azhar takes yr long case then u really dnt have to wrry as he just stops fr a minute r so and wsnt even bthrd about wt v answered..came just to get the histry sheet..

3 student went in at a time and all of us were asked to perfrm anterior rhinoscopy...then he askd me the treatment of rhinolith....
  b of luckk!!! 

ENT UNIT 2 Major Batches

short case with sir azhar
 sir ask to do cranial nerves and wants diagnosis and treatment of the condition... n bht meethi meethi bizti krte he....

Long case Dr Pal.
causes of pain in external n middle ear. acute aero otitis media treatment.. impacted wax treatment,... almost all questions were v easy.. both external n dr pal ask simple questions

Short case Dr Azhar
all cranial nerves exams... otoscopy, ant rhinoscopy, laryngoscopy.. proptosis, n questions about treatment.. mandibular nerve.

Findings bhe pochte han .... simply jo nazar aye wo bata do ... and sometimes treatment bhe.
Main focus ... Set the light.

Long case: ENT Unit 2
External takes easy viva, prep your case well in the time you have in between
Table Viva Sir Pal
or those having long case nd table viva with pal.
1. sir pal asks from his notes mostly. cram them. each nd every word.
2. focus on these topics outside. tracheostomy, dns, polyps, epistaxis, laryngeal cancer, hoarseness of voice. indications, contra and complications of all surgical tecniques.
for short case just pray that sir azhar na lain. he asks every thing. from examination of nerves to minor details blabla.

Add to this the table on unilateral and bilateral nasal obstruction which was frequently asked

nit 1 short case...aj external ne lia tha...anterior rhinoscopy...

table viva sir pal......bronchoscope k uses...tracheostomy k complications..site of origin of nasal polyps..treatment of polyp..pain in the air k causes..wax treatment......long case by external..he asks... generally management of respective case.........

Otomycosis treatment ... symtoms and signs of CSOM aticoantral type
External:  boil in ear .. y so painful ? ... FB ext ear treatment.

External 's Focus : on checking your 3rd yr and 4th yr ward cards ...
Long case viva: explain ur case, treatment, investigations, explain the incisions of surgery... can also ask questions related to GPE done in long case
my case was DNS ... other cases ...tonsillitis, nasal polyp, DNS + polyp

UNIT 2 long case: external
rule out ear infection in case. hyperacusis, peracusis welisi? y does it occur?

table viva sir Pal: tonsillectomy complications? secondary hemrhage? treatment?
ext: instrument? it was gum elastic bouge. use? causes of stricture formation? y would a person ingest alkali? accidental, suicidal..how to prevent accidental ingestion: keep out o reach of child and dont keep it in pepsi  bottel.

short case external: focus light on tip o nose. check patency. d/d of unilateral nasal obstruction plus epistaxis in 30 yr old? commenest cancer of nasopharynx, sinuses? SCC

 VIVA Questions Complied by Class of 2013(updated by Sadaf Hafeez ,class of 2013)

ENT UNIT 1 Major Case Batches ( Sir Azhar)

wht changes can occur in adenoid if left as such.....cmplt name ov adenoid curette wd guard,its use....CT scan interpretatn........boundries ov trotmanz triangle....how 2 dfrntiate b/w central n peripheral nysagmus in case ov spontaneous nystamus
dr. azhar...trotmanz triangl,, a prsn wd forgn body in nose and in extrnl aud meats near tympanic memb....which one is more dangerous....ambo tube(resussitation tube),....extrnl.....et tube m cuff ka function?anaesthesia kesy dety hn?methds to maintain airway?
polyp diff of nose n ear.bone fractures....xternal...walshm`s forceps n asches forceps use,difference...x-ray dekhen(it was PA n lateral view f head n neck showing foreign body in nose), how to diff between central n peripheral spontaneous nystagmus by just looking at it. branchial cyst n its treatmnt

Short Case :
,ant rhinoscopy.. osteomeatal complex ethmoid bones number in skull. examine facial nerve....well that didnt require lite focussing still dr.abid said focus light before any kind of examination....sir azhar asked: ''is facial nerve intact???'' ''paralysis of which side'' and he was asking some grading of bell's palsy...( dun knw abt that)
dr.pal short case: ant rhinoscopy. then two easy questions(mine were indication turbinectomy,indication f antrostomy)

long case viva(DNS ka case tha): diff between septal spur n DNS,complications f SMR
other cases in ward:tonsillitis,otitis externa,angiofibroma,nasal polyps(but never write exact diagnsz.always write D/D n 2 or more possibilities.)

table viva..indications fo tonsillectomy..JD lymph nodes kaha hty hn?what is virchows L.N?what is sentinal L.N?hw extra dural abses iz formed in chleasteotoma?what is aural plyp?a pt. comes in emergency wid fits n diagnosed case of cholesteotoma..wht u think what hapend to him??i think n said UNCINATE PROCESS instd ov gyrus...n then he asked ek uncinate process nose mn b hta hy..mn ne kaha yes sir hta hy...he said kis jga hta hy...sir.latrl wall pe...he said latrll wall to bht bri hti hy...hta kahan hy...i said sir.midlle meatus mn...he said ok jyn ....mujhy koi instrument koi radiograph koi c.t ni dekhaya...

long case...xternal...ma case DNS..he asked findings n diagnosis..treatment...i said SMR n SEPTOPLASTY...he asked difrnce..ma pt woz under 17..i said i ll go fo septoplasty...
. intruments, e.t.t...... its use, describe parts of it, use of balloon, how will u inflate the cogh and with what media mean water or air or what?whts the name of small hole at the end of E.T.T....... its function..... then folleys catheter, its use except in epistaix.... ( cystotomy, pleural tab, etc).............. ct scan, .showing some soft tissue mass in middle ear cavity encroaching
shrt case........ examination of left ear(sir demand to focaus the light)............. treatment of wax..... ext in long case .....ma case was csom(atico anteral type)...... d/d is always frst question, tunning fork tests result in my case, (rinnes test,webber, abc ,schwabbach's)..........tip* whollllllllllllllllle of unit 1 staf is extremely helpful in ur long case, even they prepare it , expected viva q, an the way to proceed with the case, dont frget to carry ur ward cardss, must carry ur assighnment copy and history sheets fr table viva, pgs or teachers in the rum with s. azher chek it and enlist marks in a paper
First thing : relax!
Long case: you can easily check the diagnosis and presenting complains from the pt's file.You get plenty of time to write history and examination and nobody's checks it ( in unit 1 atleast).You only have to narrate a quick history to the external.He's a mild person,asks 2 or 3 questions about your case and before you know, its over!
Some long cases today:Tonsillitis, laryngeal carcinoma,nasal polyps,chronic suppuration Otits media.The PGs were helping students make probable diagnosis and prepare viva questions. ( again in unit 1,no such help was given to unit 2 students ,i think.)

Table viva Sir Azhar :
He has all instruments and CTscans and gives you a scenario to solve. Mine was : a 25 year old man had a flight of 12 hours from STANFORD university to Pakistan and got pain in one ear.His tympanic membrane looks dull and has hemorrhages.He has H/O DNS and sinusitis. What can be the probable diagnosis?
It was aero-otits media due to blockage of Eustachian tube.
How will you manage it ?
I said myringotomoy and Eustachian tube catheterization
Sir said is se pehlay kia kren ge if pt. has severe pain ?!
Give analgesics
What more?
Local ya systemic?
I :Local
No you can give both.Name a decongestant ?

Asked to identify and give uses of endotracheal tube and bellinger swivel knife.

Short case Sir Pal :
Examine tonsils ( examine mouth first, then depress tongue to view oropharnyx, and don't forget to examine lymph nodes)
Which lymph node involved in tonsillitis? JD lymph nodes
Konsa level ? Level 2
Treatment of peri-tonsillar abscess ?
incision and drainage, interval tonsillectomy.

Do 'managements' of external and middles ear diseases from Sir Pal's notes really well and ALL surgeries (esp their indications and complications )

sir azhar:fistula mastoid fistula.treatment(fistulectomy).ic ki fistulectomy ko kahty kiya hain(cortical mastoidectomy).which lymph nodes involved in supra glottic c.a.....long case: sir azhar: what is m.r.s? n thats it...short case: sir pal: left ear otoscopy.treatment of fungus in ear.difference btw rectified spirit nd methylated spirit
2 Questioons 1.Important features of vestibulotoxic nystagmus,,,,,, 2. Immediate complication of corrosive esophagitis.........
And do neck incisions for Sir azhar
Most commonly used is Frazers incision ( spelling? ) , then Mcfee (2 transverse incisions) ,then Grossman ( single transverse).Others are Cryle's (Y shaped), Martin-Hyne (double Y shaped) and Conley ( inverted Y shaped).

dr.azhar,, grading of facial nerve paralysis.fistula?sinus?name any sinus?y cavernus sinus is not a fistula?pick up instument,name?(bronchoscope)use?how to hold it?how to insert?long case:wts ur diagnosis..dr pal:exam ear.,treatmnt of fungal infection..for how long?wt is the imp of whole in head mirror?
: name some pre malignant lesions of ENT?? vocal cord palsy? otalgia referred pain causes? define tumour marker? tumour marker in colon carcinoma n lymphoma..
external... pick this instrument.. myringotome.. its uses.. myringotomy indications.. baro otitis media..

TIPS: just relaxxxx... if u r relax everything goes well.... ETT, airway, anaesthesia gases, AMBU bag uses etc do prepare..

LONG CASE: bilateral enlarged tonsils...
external... chronic tonsilitis types, true membrane false membrane, diphtheria, how will u differentiate diphtheric patient from tonsilitis just looking at him.... etc etc..

dont worry about long case... teachers r very helping.. very relax environment...
what are tumor markers,levels of lymph nodes in neck,what is collar stud abscess...
how will u differentiate b/w angiofibroma and carcinoma..... y does it bleed profusely.... wat are its investigations... treatment.... y radiations r not given as first choice for reducing the angiofibroma's vascularity................................. Table Viva with External: Oropharyngeal airway, its use....wtz ds instrument..esophagoscope..itz contraindications..wt z action of histamine on body..name the place in body,where if histamine is absent patient can die..treatmnt of mastoid fistula.level 3 lymph nodes..then a scenario.. a person came bak frm ofice,took lunch,go for sleep..in eveing he took tea and went to park for walk..then came bak,spent time wd family,took dinner,went to bed..then watched tv nd bbc news..then went to sleep..in the morning he had one deaf ear..HOW WIL U PROCEED??

Yesterday he was asking boht ajeeb ajeeb say qs in the start, like Types of necrosis, Tumor Markers, hcg, (PATHO) hyperthermia, its menagement, contraindications of Suxamethonium (PHARMA), B scan, boil at cornea (EYE) n very ajeeb ajeeb n long long PBQs..
fortunately, every1 was being asked atleast 1 easy question (means from ENT).. Just Levels of LNs in neck, Charonic tonsilitis n Hyperthermia were

Glue ear ? its clinical presentation ( tell every thing associated symptoms, audiometry test, tympanometry etc etc), Tympanic membrane ki findings??? , why it is called Glue ear? (DR. AZHAR) difference b/w glue nd IGLO ??? IGLO kdher hty hain ??? ciachin per jo foji hn gy un k hematocrait ko kya ho ga ???? What is Trench mouth ??? LONG CASE ( CSOM attico antral) extrnl asked treatment ??? diff b/w modified nd radical mastoidectomy ??? kn kn sy ossicles remove karain gy ??? stapes k sath kya karain gy ??? Ager stapes k upar cholesteotoma aa gya hai to ????
what is this? it was portex tracheostomy tube,uses? then subclavian arteries ka origin? level 5 lymph nodes ? when incision is made how does it heal? primary intention kis ki intention hoti hai(its surgeon's) then diff in primary sec intention,myocutaneous flap ? I said flap of skin with underlying muscle,he asked particular surgery in which it is made? I thot ent related hogi,myotomy type kuch mumble kiya tau he said yay bht difficult question hai,frget it ! then he asked I m operating on a guy's ear n he faints,what has happened to him,I said u ve irritated his vagus ,he said fine,n that's all

define radical neck dissection (start with "it is a surgical procedure")
group 3 of lymph nodes
Which cranial nerve is at risk in radical neck dissection
Difference between grade 3 n 4 facial nerve lesion

Instruments to identify : Rigid bronchosope,mastoid currette n cell seeker,which side is cell seeker,ETT,double action septal bone punch forcep,,
levels of lymph nodes,neck dissection,corrosive o
esophagitis ki complications n treatment(sir specifically ask for shoch n acid base balance due to acute kidney failure)
 identify the instruments n their uses. bronchoscope, double action bone punch.ett.macewan cell seeker n currette. levels of lymph nodes in neck. then sir Azhar told hm to ask acute complcation of corrosive intake. i(electrolyte imbalance, renal failure n then resp obstruction etc).... sir Pal left ear main speculum n treatment of furncle/boil.....long case csom with mastoid abscess sir Azhar n external ,, treatment of mastoid abscess, citelli's abscess , in relation to which muscle, bezold abscess, what other location i said tip of mastoi then parapharyngeal space, then sternocleadoastoid.asked which area ll b affected due to sternocleadomastoid apart fm mastoid tip...hint attachment of sternomastoid . i said clavicle.

ENT UNIT 2 Major Case Batches ( Sir Pal)

Pick up TONSILLAR SNARE. What do we hold in it? (Pedicle) What is Pedicle? (Part of Tonsil where Blood Vessels enter or leave the tonsil). What is the most important artery in tonsillectomy? (Tonsillar Artery). Tonsillar Artery is Branch of? (Facial Artery). Facial Artery is Branch of? (External Carotid Artery). Name the branches of External Carotid Artery? (Superior Thyroid, Ascending Pharyngeal, Lingual, Facial, Post Auricular, Occipital, Maxillary, Supratemporal). How nasal septum is formed? (Septal Cartilage, Vomer, Perpendicular Plate of Ethmoid.....etc) What is a septsl spur? Where is it located? (At the junction of bony and cartilaginous part of nasal septum). What is the length of Trachea in adults? (10-15cm)
dr. paal... short case..
examine tonsil... its treatment..
again... dont forget to examine lymph node....

he was usually asking to focus light.. anterior rhinoscopy.. otoscopy n examine tonsills..

tell function of mastoid retrctor except matoidectomy( while taking graft from temporalis for myringoplasty),name other grafts which are used?function of tracheostomy tube cuff?walshams forcep use?
endoscopic adenoidectomy,its advantages...types of mastoidectomy & complications...most common one????(deafness)...... a female under 30, after radicl mstoidctmy wht would be ur managemnt for H.L?(intra canaliculr hearing aid....(social issues)... facial palsy.nasal polyp & a proptosed patient in short case...

Instrument: Lichtwitz trocar and cannula. The procedure it's used, its incision, indications and complications. Which other ENT surgery is it used in besides proof puncture?

Identify X-ray PNS with the nose-ring: Left maxillary sinusitis.
Indications of tonsillectomy.

end. adenoidctmy...beter veiw decreases chances of lesions to other strctures.better cntrl of tissue to be removed.good cntrl of bleeding ,cmpared to gauze used in cnventionl methd,but expnsive nd bleedng can make the procedure difficult nd prolonged....tonsillectomy complications..teatment of crooked nose..

table viva dr pal...adenoid curette..what is use of guard?adenoidectomy absolute indications...serous otitis edia surgical treatment..dont forget to mention adenoidectomy r tonsillectomy.lyrnx nerve supply.cough reflex....long case with external....he will read ur whole history so write it properly..questions related to case that was polyps... sir pal table viva: asked me to identify ett and tracheostomy tube....which is the cuff....wat is the function of cuff( he said fixation of tube)...and total gappein...who is the most famous indian actor nowadays..wats the name of salman khan's mother:P
treatment of middle ear abscess, treatment of abscess in the nasal septum, treatment of infection of crypta magna, why do we dissect tonsil from its upper pole?
SMR indicatnz,, main cmplicatn of mastoid surgery jo surgeon ko pareshan krdete hai..... csom types n surgcal treatmen,, facial nrve brnches..... supply.... greatr suprfcl petrosal ksme zida active hte haii,,, male ya female.... main main aik cause of hoarsenes btaen ,, ...
Epistaxis treatment
Ligation of arteries
Tonsil bed
Whts laterl to parapharyngeal space

X-ray..tell whether its female or male?(female wid nose pin visible)
pick any instrument.
ask abt tracheostomy tube,functions of cuff(fixation)
mastoid retractor fuction..

Short Case : focus the light n autoscopy,,if ext auditory meatus is narrow so what will be the treatment,,i said septoplasty,,sir,,isma kya kree gay,,i said exenteration of bone n hypertrophied tissue,,sir then??,,i said grafting,,sir,recurrence pa kya kreeiiin gay,,thn sir said ok go,,


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