mam raafia had neuro, embryo, head and neck.neuro viva : levels of midbrain, nuclei at this level, rubrospinal tract and its decussation, functions of red nucleus, superior cerebellar peduncles, connections of basal ganglia and its function, arterial supply of cerebrum, spotting of cerebellum , thalamus, hypothalamas, midbrain, corpus callosum etc. wernicke's area and its number ,broca's area, aphasias, medial medullary syndrome, lateral medullary syndrome. Blood supply of chorid plexuses., cutaneous branches of trgeminal, nuclei at the level of pons. gross spotting of poms basilar artery its branches, formation of leminisci nd the type of fibers nd senstion they carry, auditory areas number and location

embryo : development of lens, retina. retinal detachment.she had cvs model, eye model and git models and was asking about the development of liver, duodenum, pancreas, bladder, uterus, histogenesis of bladder, septum primum and septum secondum etc. spleen.
, development of uterus, paramesonephric ducts, rotation  of stomach, components of development of diaphragm

head and neck : extraocular muscles, their nerve supply, middle ear contents, branch of facial nerve given off in middle ear, sensory supply of face.she was asking alot of questions from larynx, pharynx, soft palate etc. mainly from the end chapters. atlantooccipital joint pe movement
mandible attachments, structures passing through mandibular foramen, artery nd nerve supplying nasal septum,
NOTE: Maam rafea likes to link the whole viva. whatever you say in the asnwer she can use it in the next question. For e.g, when asked about boundries of third ventricle, if you mention that it is related to choriod plexus, the viva shifts to chorid plexus and the artery supplying it. and keep the answer as to the point as possible, other wise the viva gets quite complicated.

external questions : peritoneal relations of bladder, clinical importance of this peritoneal attachment, peritoneal relations of uterus, douglas pouch and its importance, perirenal fascia attachments, venous drainages, arterial supplies. spotting of visceras, side determination of kidney, anterior relations of left kidney, suprarenal nd their blood supply, pancreas blood supply, cancer of head of pancreas, its complications, bile duct opening and its importance, anal columns, anal valves, pectinate line, hilton's line, conjoint tendons in pelvis, internal and external piles, perianal space, inguinal hernias , male urethra etc.
UROGENITAL DIAPHGRAM., Ventral mesocolon, epiploic foramen, stomach nerve supply, sphincters

Internal: Embryology model and formation of omental bursa, rotation of stomach, branches of vagus nerve, branches of mandibular nerve, blood supply of thyroid gland, metanephric diverticulum, otic ganglion, nuclei at the level of pons, motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve, secretomotor fibers in trigeminal nerve.
Exernal: side determination of testis, attachments of lesser omentum, peritoneal reflections on liver, bloodsupply of duodenum, difference b/w common and proper hepatic artery.

External: Difference between male and female peritoneal cavity
Blood supply of anterior abdominal wall
Anatomical position of uterus
Contents of broad ligament
Anatomical position of stomach
Contents of lesser omentum
Side determination of kidney
Anterior relations of kidney
Blood supply of suprarenal glands
Surface Marking: External jugular vein
Internal: Model of developing peritoneal cavity with spleen, stomach, liver, etc.
Development of liver
Parts of cerebullum and their functions
Commissures of brain
Intrinsic muscles of larynx and their functions

External  side determination of kidney , visceral relations, whole blood supply, features of body of pancreas ,blood supply, anatomical position of uterus ,boundaries of ovarian fossa,diff b/w nulliperous and multiperous ovaries, pelvic diaghram ,its prolapse , where ovarian carcinoma spreads (nodes)?
Internal sinuses of posterior cranial fossa, formation of great cerebral vein, contents of middle ear, course of chorda tympani , structures forming body of lateral ventricle, stria terminalis? , rotation of stomach, hypertrophied pyloric sphincter, duodenal atresia, how to diff b/w the two? Ext : main support of uterus i.e transverse cervical lig, plane of neurovascular bundle of ant abd wall , derivatives of ext oblique aponeurosis,mc burneys point n nerves in danger at this incision, kidney hilum, stones impaction sitesInt : posterior aspect of larynx n muscles nerves etc, midbrain nuclei, suprarenal development, bladder epithelium derivationEXT: bladder spotting,surfaces,distended bladder,peritoneal realations,blood supply,nerve supply,pouch of douglas and its importance, contensts of greater omentum, arteriel supply stomach, root of mesentry contents,ligaments of uterus Suraface making:hypoglossal nerve INT:spotting on skulll,mandibular nerve,muscles of mastication,nuclei at the level of pons,parathyroid gland development,histogenesis,thyroid and parafolliculur cells development

EXTERNAL: side determination of various visceras
peritonial relations of uterus, stomach, bare areas of stomach,
sacrum attachments, blood supply of wo wala viscera jis ki aap side determination kar rahe...
why vericocael more common on left side, supports of liver, supports of uterus, signal nodes for cancer of ovary,
i had pinna wali major slide .... humare batch ne pinna me dermis draw nahi ki hui .. dermis draw karni or us me hair follicle, sweat and sbaceous gland b draw karne... only qs asked was k elastic cartilage or kaha present hoti..i.e:epiglottis....
INTERNAL: mam is total sweetheart... so no worries... basic qs like maxillary,mandibular nerve, fascial nerve ki branches, ptregopalatine ganglia ki branches, how is nerve to pterygoid canal formed, foramena k contents, tongue ki development, thyroid ki development, whatever u say leads to the next qs, so if u r smart enough u can direct it in ur desired direction (although its not as easy as it seams) nuclei at various levels of brainstem, cerebellum ki development...
surface marking of almost everything except some impossoble ones!!!!
from which germinal layer epithelium of tongue is derived???
spotting slides are mostly kaafi clear... sir sohail is checking copies so better not copy his signs.. :D
Good Luck!!!

  • anat major ques:
    •mam rafia:
    dev of kidney, common derivative of mesonephric duct in male n female, level of mesonephroi( upper middle or lower), origin n fate of ureteric bud
    •functions of dorsal thalamus, thalamic hand its reason
    • nerve supply of palate, lesser palatine branch of which nerve, location of otic ganglion, its supply and roots

    • starts with testes( side determination n reason -_-), its venous drainage, defect which will occur if dis is blocked,
    right n left gonadal veins drain into wht?
    blood supply of suprarenal glands n origin of these arteries, oesophageal varices
    Internal : foramina of middle cranial fossa...imp of foramen lacerum...branches of int carotid A...branches of opthalmic A...embryology of central A of retina..formation of optic vessicle...retinal detachmnt....connections nd functions of thalamus..all its nuclei nd details..accomodation pathway...frontal eyefield area nd its importance...basal ganglia
    External : urogenital diapragm..deep perineal space nd its contents..culdocentesis..imp of hepatorenal pouch nd pouch of of male urethra..which is least dilatable part nd its complications...bulbourethral gland..contents of stomach bed...relations of pancreas..
  • INTERNAL: model of body cavities, derivatives of septum transversum, histogenesis of liver, week of bile production.
    model of lateral wall of nose, opening in inferior meatus, opening of nasolacrimal duct in eye, point the exact location of lacrimal sac on skull, secretomotor supply of lacrimal gland
    parts of midbrain, function of substantia nigra.
    EXTERNAL: major supports of liver, anatomical lobes of prostate, which area is involved in prostatic carcinoma, spread of prostatic carcinoma, anatomical position of spleen and impressions, direct inguinal hernia, significance of portosystemic anastomosis, portosystemic anastomosis in the region of lower esophagus.
    mandible attchmnts. dvlpmnt f pitutry, muscles f masticatn (funtions f laterl n medial pterygoid), laminisci, mandibular nerve (branches), middle cerebral artry. insula. prostate (carcinoma n zones f prostate. spread f carcinoma). intstines (both small n large), stomch bed, inguinal hernia direct n indirect
  • lateral nasal wall model pterygopalatine fossa contents pterygopalatine ganglion effernts thyroid gland thyroidema artery mid brain nuclei EDW kay efferent derttivatives of phryngeal pouches tongue development anal canal ext anal sphincter kay component liver relation branches of abdominal aorta supra renal gland arterial supply
    developement of palate,functions of superior colliculus,sphenoidal sinus,difference between jejunum and ileum on naked eye appearance,taenia colli,peritoneal relations of duodenum
  • Constricters of pharynx, where they were were derived from?
    Pharyngeal arch derivatives.
    Hippocampal commissure.
    Parts of mamallary bodies.
    Fornix and its commissures.
    Paraphoron, Epophoron, derivatives of mesopnephric ducts.
    The part of mesonephric ducts that forms similar structures in both females and males.
    Went on to ask about kidney development.

    Began with parts of urethra, asked about the least dilatable section of urethra.
    Asked to explain the type of extravasation that would occur in a penile or bulbar injury.
    Superficial extravasation.
    Why it would not go into to thigh.
    Holdens line.
    The difference between portosystemic and systemic and pulmonary circulations.(two sets of capillaries being the answer)
    Indirect hernia.
    Pancreas and their borders and surfaces.
    and relations.
    and what parts were covered by peritoneum.
    Kuch bhi nai uthwaya, just pointed to pancreas

    • Also Maam Rafea asked about septum spurium in viva.
      She had a plastic models of eye in embryo , a plastic cross section of the entire pharynx region and brain in one.
      And larynx ka LRC wala model.
      Larynx walay chapter ko sab ghol k pee jayein.
      She loves that chapter.
      Also posterior cricoarytenoid has two types of fibres
      Upper horizontal.
      Lower vertical.
      n parts of orbicularis oculi.
      Google those!
      n structures passing through sup , mid n inf cerebellar peduncles.
      Percentage of people having patent oval foramen.
      ( 25%)
      Altantoaxial joints pe movements.
       Some questions external kept repeating including...
      UROGENITAL DIAPHGRAM... the muscles urethra has to pierce and responsible for maintain urinary continence. include compressor urethrae, deep trnsvrs perinei.
      why RETROGRADE flow of urine does not occur in ureters?
      Due to obliquity of muscle fibres in ureter.
      Clinical Importance of peritoneal relation of "superior" surface of bladder? when bladder is distended it comes in direct contact with anterior abdominal wall and can be approached without peritoneum intervening.
      and maam was only satisfied with "perineal membrane" definition being it is the inferior fascia of urogenital diaphgram.
 External:morhi's sign,testes side determination and sinus of epidydymis,testes venous drainage and why its difficult on left side,compliction of short urethra in females,carcinoma of head of pancrease and its complications.

External: Pancreas, Relation of Splenic vessels with pancraes, Borders, Diagnostic technique for retrocaecal appendicitis, Uterus, Peritoneal relations, Complications of pancreatic carcinoma, Portocaval anastomoses.
Internal: Mandible attachments, Lateral pterygoid, Nerve supply, Actions, Inferior alveolar nerve, Nuclei at medulla, Nucleus ambiguus, Glossopharyngeal nerve, Branches, Development of tongue.
 histology(study laiq...nthng less nthng more)
tongue..glands on dorsm ov tongue,specialyy von ebnrs glnd....types ov papilla n their dstributn...which one has tast bud...n their details like keratin colour etc...all prsnt in humn beings or nt(foliat r
in adlts only,bt v.few evn in em)
liver...bile ductules dcts etc n their epi..spac ov disse n its cntnts..
thyroid...mam parathyroid b poch lti hain thyroid ki slid p
urnry bladdr tha aj minr ma jo 9/10 cdnt idntify...bladdr p plaques..trnstnl epithelium uretr sy strt hti...urthra ma epithelium in dif parts...
ovary...ovrian cycl...kis stag p antrl folic
smnfrs tubul ma...leydg cells... k fnctions..
pinna...elstc crtlg or kahan....n smthng abt skin histo...
adrenl...dif bw epinphrin n norepi. scretng cells,prcntages abt cell dstributn...smallst cells lgst ones etc
sb laoq sy e...n mostly mjr k bad tim mlta e cheatg ka...aik batch ko ni mla b ready....n mam sara...she is helpng ppl...uncl b bta dty hain...or sir sohail sy sign krvana o idntify kr k to....lead pecil sy likh k unko dikha do sir yhi e na?he is realy NICE...

 EXTERNAL: she askded me to pick the uterus n describe its peritoneal relations. diffrnc btween male n female peritoneal cavity, peritonitis, parts of male urethra, glands in females homologous to bulbourethral glands and their cyst.. from abdomen, she askd spleen,side determination, borders, visceral surface relations, hilum, linorenal ligament.. then she askd about kidney,side determination, relations of posterior relation, renal fascia attachments.
INTERNAL: (neuro) plastic model of hemisection of brain, corpus callosum, parts of fornix, names of cranial nrv nuclei in medulla.. (head n nck) course of hypoglossal nerve, articulation of atlas n axis n their ligaments.. (embryo) heart model, septum spurium, sinus venosus n its incorporation in to atrium, coarctation of aorta,types n its consequences.

  • EXTERNAL: she askded me to pick the uterus n describe its peritoneal relations. diffrnc btween male n female peritoneal cavity, peritonitis, parts of male urethra, glands in females homologous to bulbourethral glands and their cyst.. from abdomen, she askd spleen,side determination, borders, visceral surface relations, hilum, linorenal ligament.. then she askd about kidney,side determination, relations of posterior relation, renal fascia attachments.Surface marking was frm both regions. spotting mein bh main main spots they!
  • Can anybody tell me whats the function of Septum Pellucidum ??? As asked by mam rafea ??
     Blood supply of paranasal sinuses, facial nerve course were also asked..

  • External: liver and relations, duodenum (relations of first part), transverse mesocolon, anorectal ring, anal sphincters, deep perineal space, inguinal hernias

    Internal: boundaries of posterior horn of 4th ventricle, direction of fibres in tapetum, hippocampus, cerebellum and its derivation, attachments on mandible and movements
     surface marking=spleen
    externl=spoting liver,spotting uterus,us ki blood supply or nerve supply
    internl=basal ganglia key connections,cloaca wala model ki description,opthalmic nerv
  • Internal-repeating all questions, contents of perineal pouches, Hydronephrosis , blood supply of suprarenals, Cushing syndrome, kidney spotting for its relations..
    bladder surfaces, nerve supply , supports of bladder ,
    contents of lesser omntum, bare areas of stomach , blood supply, water shed line . rectus sheath
  • conjoint tendon ki dono typs n compostion, urogenital diaphragm, primary n secndry supports of liver, how intraabdominal presure forms the basic suport to liver?, reflections of peritoneum in the lower abdomen n the structures causing those reflections, bare areas of stomach n liver, pelvimetry, baki ma'am viscera uthwyen gi 2 ya 3 and unkai peritoneal relations, visceral relations, blood , nerve supply n lymphatic drainage... peritoneal relations should b learnt properly cux mam ka viva isi k gird ghumta he
    internal: embryo: dev of pancreas n the fusion of bth buds n the pancreatic duct and rotations mam bht puchti, dudenum ki, stomach ki n as a whole intestine ki n their angle n side of rotation, phyrangeal arch components
    neuro.. functional areas of ceerebrum, cerebellar nuclei, tracts afrnt n efrnt to cerebelum, fibres pasing thru sup n inf cereblar peduncles
    head n neck, maxilary artey ki branches, maxilary n mandibular nerve ki branches n distributiion and muscles of mastication, facial expresion, facial nerve supply zone, opthalmic artrey kki main branches, lacrimal fossa k contents, why stylopharyngeus is suplied by 9th cranial nerve??? facial artery ka blood suply zone.
    external:determination of sex of pelvis(see subpubic angle),diameters,external conjugate diameter,difrnc btween ovaries of nulli parous n parturitive women(in nulliparous,ovaries lie in ovarian fossa),boundaries of ovarian fossa,signal nodes for stomach,hemtemesis
  • Internal: Internal capsule, lateral ventricle, development of pancreas, submandibular gland's nerve supply, atlantoaxial joints.


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