DIVING INTO YOUR BODY- A GUIDE TO 2ND YEARS ANATOMY


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Ohkay so, enough of the never ending courses and relationships of the stuff packed in your body, it's time to move all this stuff to your brains now!
Tension not, not everything is meant to go to the brains, some ofcourse has to go to the hearts ;)
So, Here's what your brains need to know about your body, and ofcourse store this there for a year, atleast ;)

Ready, Steady, let's Go!!

    HISTOLOGY 
Let's begin with the fault in our stars, oo-oops, Histology 😅
Histology ain't that bad as we think it is, it just demands a little friendship with the microscope(which believe me is a great friend!) and an eye to look at the minutest of details. Yup, that's all :)

🔶️RESOURCES:
🔹️Laiq Hussain 
🔹️Junquera's Histology(The Tables and The blue boxes of clinicals. Bs!)
🔹️Kamran khawaja's notes available in photocopy shop plus Diagrams in copy.

MUST DOs :
🔹️All diagrams and their brief description;
Either make your own notes on Histo notebook or from Kamran Khwaja's notes
🔹️Past papers questions

HIGH YIELD TOPICS:
🔶️GIT
The most imp portion for Prof. One diagram is compulsory so all the diagrams and their brief descriptions.
🔹️Difference between duodenum, jejunum, opium
🔹️Difference between pancreas and parotid
🔹️Lobules and zones of liver

🔶️ENDO
🔹️Diagrams 
🔶️SPECIAL SENSES
🔹️Imp for mcqs
🔶️RENAL
🔹️Types of cells in various parts of nephron
🔹️Difference between proximal and distal convoluted tubules 
🔹️JG apparatus 
🔹️Urothelium - location and function 
🔶️REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM :
🔹️Diagrams 
🔹️Difference between ureter, vas deferns and fallopian tube
🔹️Uterus - difference between 3 phases
🔶️CNS :
🔹️Diagrams and types of cells with function


  EMBRYOLOGY 

Why not discover our past before diving into the present? 
So, let's begin with day 1, deep in the womb 😄


RESOURCES
🔹️KLM
            🔹️Langman ( only if you have already studied from it and have never opened KLM )
🔹️Kaplan's video lectures for CVS
🔹️Dr Najeebs Lectures for Development of limbs.


Here are the most important topics from the following chapters, the greater the number of stars, the more important it is for it to make to your brain!

🔹️CHAPTER 8 :
Diaphragm development and anomalies***
🔹️CHAPTER 9 :
 Table 9.1***          
Pharangeal pouch derivatives***   Development of thyroid gland***
Development of tongue***
Development of palate with anomalies***
 Development of face for mcqs**
🔹️CHAPTER 10: 

Development of larynx***
TEF*** 
Maturation of lungs***
🔹️CHAPTER 11: 
 Rotation of stomach ***
 Development of liver**
    Development of Structure developing both from foregut and midgut(Duodenum)**
 Development of pancreas and annular pancreas***
Herniation of midgut, rotation and retraction (Mcqs)**
Development of appendix** 
        Development of anal canal(Mcqs)**
       🔸️CLINICALS: Megacolon, anorectal anomalies,ileal diverticulum, gastroschisis
🔹️CHAPTER 12:
 Metanephroi***
 Table 12.1***
 Positional changes of kidneys and changes in blood Supply ***
    Congenital anomalies of kidneys and ureters***
  Development of urinary bladder**
Development of suprarenal glands***
 Development of ovaries and Development of uterus*
  Testicular Descent***
🔸️ CLINICALS: Mesonephric and paramesonephric duct remnants, hypospadias, epispadias,anomalies of uterus and vagina, cryptorchidism


🔹️CHAPTER 13
Development of IVC***
Development of heart*
       Partitioning of primordial heart( AV canal, Atrium, ventricle, Truncus Arteriosus)***
Derivatives of pharangeal arch arteries***
  Derivatives of fetal structures** 
🔸️CLINICALS : ASDs, VSDs, Persistent truncus Arteriosus, Transposition of great arteries,  Tetralogy of Fallot, Aortic stenosis, Abnormal division of truncus Arteriosus, coarcation of aorta, patent ducts Arteriosus 
🔹️CHAPTER 14:

 Intramembranous vs endochondrial modification*
       Development of vertebral column**
   Development of cranium (MCQs)*
🔸️CLINICALS: Brevicollis, spina bifida,Rachischisis, craniosynostosis

🔹️CHAPTER 15:
 Overview or Summary 
🔹️CHAPTER 16:
AER**
   Limb Rotation*
               Summary of the rest of chapter
🔸️CLINICALS: Limb anomalies, split hand/ foot, digital anomalies, clubfoot
🔹️CHAPTER 17:
 Development of Spinal cord**
         Development of metencephalon**
          Development of pituitary gland***
Table 17.1**
🔸️CLINICALS: Meroencephaly, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, holoprosencephaly, hydranencephaly, chiari Malformation, spina bifida cystica and oculta, meningomyelocele, myeloschisi
🔹️CHAPTER 18: SUMMARY 
🔹️CHAPTER 19: SUMMARY 











Okayyy done with the past, let's come to the present, to the grossest part;
       GROSS ANATOMY 


       1. HEAD AND NECK 


RESOURCES
🔹️BD
             🔹️KLM for CLINICALS
🔹️RJ Last for a few topics only


NOTE : Bones are to be done for viva only. However their clinicals,boundaries of pterygopalatine fossa etc and structures passing through foramina are important for written as well


HIGH YIELD TOPICS :
(Ahgain, the more the number of stars a topic has, the more space it needs in your brain!)
🔹️Structures passing through various foramina*** 
🔹️Layers of scalp and dangerous area*
🔹️Black vs red eye***
🔹️Temporal infratemporal fossae boundaries and contents**
🔹️Danger Area of face**
🔹️Dermatomes of face**
🔹️Onion peel appearance**
🔹️Parotid gland**
🔹️TMJ - type, architecture, movements and muscles responsible for these movements 
(This topic is best written in RJ last)***
^See, science is an art basically...

Coming back,
🔹️Pterygopalatine fossa and contents**
🔹️Boundaries of orbit and contents**
🔹️Intra and extra ocular muscles with nerve Supply and actions**
🔹️Cavernous sinus- structures in its walls**
🔹️Deep cervical fascia***
🔹️Carotid sheath***
🔹️Posterior triangle  (table 3.1)***
🔹️Anterior triangle and subdivisions***
🔹️Ansa cervicalis**
🔹️Cervical Ganglia*
🔹️Cervical plexus*
🔹️Infra and suprahyoid muscle tables*
🔹️Nerve Supply of submandibular and sublingual glands*
🔹️Thyroid gland**
🔹️Parathyroid(position only)**
🔹️Hard and soft palate- muscles + nerve Supply***
🔹️Pharynx (table)**
🔹️Structures passing in between muscles** 
🔹️Passavants ridge**
🔹️Tongue - Muscles,  nerve Supply and actions)**
🔹️Nose- medical and lateral walls; formation,  nerve and blood supply***
🔹️Larynx - complete ( kenHub video is very beneficial)***
🔹️Ear- middle ear most important ( Dr Najeeb's Lecture is suupper beneficial)***
🔹️Auditory tube*
🔹️All 4 ganglia with their preganlionic and post ganglionic fibres***
🔹️Cranial nerves I - XII
Course and lesions (Easiest in RJ Last)***

🔹️For written; Nerves and Vessel courses Overview only from appendix and names of branches only


Okay, Now, Welcome to the world of complicated relationships, which to be honest are still less complicated than those-that-must-not-be-named ;)
   2.ABDOMEN AND PELVIS
RESOURCES

🔹️BD 
🔹️KLM for CLINICALS
🔹️RJ Last for a few topics
🔹️Anatomic Wisdom lecture videos on YouTube 

HIGH YIELD TOPICS:
🔹️NOTE : RELATIONS,  BLOOD SUPPLY AND NERVE SUPPLY OF ABDOMINAL ORGANS ARE VERY IMPORTANT. 
🔹️9 regions of abdomen*
🔹️Muscles of abdomen- attachments, nerve Supply and special features***
🔹️Inguinal canal***
🔹️Direct Vs indirect inguinal hernia***
🔹️Spermatic cord***
🔹️Covering of testis**
🔹️Pampiniform plexus**
🔹️Tunica vs processus vaginalis**
🔹️Abdominal incisions (KLM)***
🔹️Peritoneum- greater and lesser sacs, compartments,  epiploic foramen***

🔹️Stomach- stomach bed, relations , blood supply, lymphatic drainage, carcinoma vs ulcer***
🔹️Parts of Duodenum- relations of 2nd part***
🔹️Gross difference between ileum and jujenum(table)**
🔹️Ligament of Trietz***
🔹️Positions of Appendix***
🔹️McBurneys point***

🔹️Internal and external piles***
🔹️Blood supply of rectum***
🔹️Ceolic trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries ,portal vein- course and branches + structures supplying***
🔹️Portocaval anastomosis***
🔹️(Table 21.2)***
🔹️Spleen- most commonly damaged structure of abdomen***

🔹️Bile duct - 4 parts***
🔹️Pancreas- parts and relations***
🔹️Liver- gross features, segments, porta hepatis***
🔹️7 bare areas of liver***
🔹️Gall bladder- location, nerve Supply,referred pain***

🔹️Kidney- relations,  nerve Supply, coverings***
🔹️Ureter- very important****
🔹️Suprarenal- table 25.1
🔹️Blood Supply *****
🔹️Posterior abdominal wall( muscle table from BD or KLM)***
🔹️Aorta and inferior vena cava (origin and tributeries)***
🔹️Ischioanal fossa***
🔹️Anal canal- 3 parts, blood, nerve,lymphatic  supply, anastomosis sites**
🔹️Perineum -
🔹️Extent***
🔹️Boundaries***
🔹️Anal and urogenital triangles***
🔹️Superficial and deep pouches (boxes of BD)***
🔹️Nerve supply( difference in males and females)***
🔹️Perineal body and its significance***
🔹️Ovaries- ovarian bed and blood Supply**

🔹️Uterus-true and false ligaments***
🔹️Prostate- structure , capsules, venous plexus***
🔹️Urinary bladder**
🔹️Urethra- parts (which part is damaged in which case )***
🔹️Walls of pelvis**
🔹️Floor of pelvis**
🔹️Pelvimetry(KLM)***




Ah, tired?
Dont worry, it's just your brain learning about itself now, you know, self awareness things ;)

NEUROANATOMY 

RESOURCES:
🔹️Snell
🔹️ Inderbir Singh 
🔹️Dr Najeebs videos are super helpful, especially that of the blood supply of brain.
(Do I need to remind you about the star things? Ofcourse not 😄)


🔶️Spinal cord
🔹️Gross features 
🔹️Table 6.1and 6.2 from inderbir***
🔹️Ascending and descending tracts***
🔶️Brain Stem
🔹️Gross features**
🔹️8 transverse sections****
🔹️Tables 5.2 5.3 5.4 from inderbir***
🔶️Cerebellum-
🔹️Intercerebellar nuclei*** 
🔹️Functions of 3 areas of cerebellum***
🔹️Pathways (table 6.1 6.2)**
🔹️Cerebellar peduncles (table 11.4)***
🔹️Cerebellar abnormalities**
🔹️Meninges and subarachnoid cisterns (table 3.1 inderbir)*
🔶️Ventricles
Names, boundaries, locations + tela choridia*** 

🔶️Basal ganglia-
 connections , direct and indirect circuits****
🔶️Thalamus (snell)*
🔹️Subthalamus(Snell + zona incerta inderbir)*
🔹️Epithalamus*
🔹️Metathalamus*
🔹️Hypothalamus*** 
🔹️Limbic system*** 
🔹️Reticular formation** 
🔹️Blood Supply-
 circle of Willis***
For rest of it, Dr Najeeb's video is more than enough 
🔶️Cerebrum

gross features**
🔹️Broadmans area table from BD***
🔹️White matter from Snell***
🔹️Internal capsule from inderbir***
🔶️CSF 
🔹️quantity, formation and function from snell*

Phew.... we're done, finally!
Its lengthy, but, its do-able, afterall its you discovering yourself!
So, Take good care of you, your body, all that stuff packed in it, and ofcourse of  your fellows too!
Do share your feedback because sharing is always a good way of caring :)

Picture credits: Google images, pinterest, kenHub and the awkward yeti.



Comments

  1. Jazak Allah ukhair..for the whole team

    ReplyDelete
  2. Really enjoyed the pictures more than the content 😂🤣

    ReplyDelete
  3. Jazakallah khyran kaseer 😊May Allah be pleased of u all.. aameen 😇

    ReplyDelete
  4. Best guide.. I literally started going through pics.. Wish anatomy was actially that funny

    ReplyDelete
  5. Interesting!
    Feel like studying anatomy all over again ��

    ReplyDelete

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