GUIDE TO GENERAL PATHOLOGY 3RD YEAR - A JOURNEY TO THE WORLD OF ABNORMALS



Special Thanks To Anum Sohail (Batch '21) For Contributing To This Guideline!

 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

We Welcome you onboard to Flight KE-350.
We'll be flying in a few minutes from the normal world to the World of The Abnormals - The Pathology Island. The sky is clear and we expect no delays. However the exact duration of our journey depends upon, how devotedly you undertake it.
For your safety and convenience, we have Robbin's Basic Pathology (Medium one - 10th Edition), who will be serving as our guide on this journey!



So, upright your seats and fasten your seatbelts as we are ready to take off!




🔴 MOST IMPORTANT 
🔵 IMPORTANT 
⚪ LESS IMPORTANT


CHAPTER 01: THE CELL AS A UNIT OF HEALTH AND DISEASE

⚪Table 1.1
🔵Cell Cycle checkpoints Fig 1.17
🔵Difference between CNV and SNP 
🔵Difference between embryonic stem cell and tissue stem cell


CHAPTER 02: CELL INJURY, CELL DEATH AND ADAPTATIONS

⚪Causes of cellular injury
🔴Difference between reversible and irreversible injury
🔴Apoptosis Vs Necrosis Table 2.1
🔴Necrosis Process – Membranous, Cytoplasmic & Nuclear Changes
🔴Types of necrosis (coagulative, liquefactive, gangrenous, caseous, fat, & fibrinoid)
🔴Apoptosis Causes Table 2.2

🔴Intrinsic & extrinsic pathway of apoptosis figure 2.12 
🔴Differentiate necroptosis from necrosis /apoptosis(morphologically necrosis ,mechanistically apoptosis)
🔵Pyroptosis
⚪Autophagy
⚪Mechanism of cell Death and cellular injury – An overview & Figures
🔵Fig 2.18
🔴Cellular Adaptations – Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Autophagy & Metaplasia
Oh, In the world of abnormals, we have some normals here, so don’t forget to do both – 
Physiological & Pathological adaptations.
🔴Cellular Accumulations – pigments exogenous and endogenous
🔴Pathological calcification – 
🔴Difference between dystrophic and metastatic calcification


CHAPTER 03: INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR


🔴Inflammation Definition
🔴 5 signs of inflammation 
🔵Acute Vs Chronic Table 3.1 & 3.2
🔴The 5 R’s of inflammation – Recognition, Recruitment, Removal, Regulation & Repair
🔵Receptors (TLR and NOD)
🔴Acute inflammation – Vascular & Cellular Changes
🔴Transudate Vs Exudate Fig 3.2
🔴Vascular permeability mechanisms Fig 3.3
🔵Table 3.3 macrophages Vs Neutrophils 
🔵Selectins Vs Integrins – overview 
Fig 3.4 
🔵Chemotaxis & Chemotactic Ssignals
⚪Leucocyte Activation Fig 3.6
⚪Phagocytosis Fig 3.7
⚪Primary and secondary granules page 68
🔴NETs 
🔵Frustrated Phagocytosis
🔵Mediators of inflammation Tables 3.5 – 3.8

🔵Complement System
🔵Anaphylatoxins page 76
🔴Patterns of Acute inflammation With Examples 
🔴Outcomes of acute inflammation
🔴Chronic Inflammation Definition
Causes & Features

🔴Macrophage activation pathways Fig 3.19
🔴Role of various WBCs in different types of infections
🔴Granulomatous inflammation and it's types
🔴Table 3.9
🔵Shift to the left – Systemic effects of inflammation page 87
🔵Infections associated with leukaemia page 87
🔴Tissue repair 

🔵Labile Stable and Permanent Tissue Examples
🔵Repair by Regeneration 
🔴Repair by Scarring 
🔴Granulation tissue 
🔴Healing by primary & secondary intention
🔴Angiogenesis – Steps and mediators Fig 3.25
🔵Remodelling of Connective Tissue 
🔴Factors impairing Tissue Repair – Local and Systemic
🔴Abnormalities in tissue repair
🔵Excessive Scarring 
🔵Keloid Vs Hypertrophic Scar


CHAPTER 04: HEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS, THROMBOEMBOLISM AND SHOCK

🔴Hyperemia Vs congestion
🔵Morphology of Pulmonary Congestion 
🔴Morphology of Liver Congestion – Nutmeg Liver
🔴Edema Table 4.1 Fig 4.3
🔴Edema Vs Effusion Vs Anasarca
🔴Haemorrhage
🔵Normal Haemostasis
🔵Role of platelets

🔵Role of Thrombin
🔴Coagulation Cascade
🔴Role of endothelium - platelet inhibitory effects and anticoagulant effects
🔴Virchow triad detail

🔴Hypercoagulable states Table 4.2
🔴Arterial Vs venous thrombi
🔴Fates of thrombus
🔵Superficial Vs Deep Vein Thrombosis – Superficial causes pain & edema, Deep causes Embolism 

🔵DIC
🔴Embolism – All Types with their Causes
🔴Decompression Sickness is also known as Caissons Disease.
🔵Bends in Decompression  Sickness
Infarction
🔴Difference between red and white infarct
🔴Stages of shock and it's pathogenesis
🔴Table 4.3 and Fig 4.19

CHAPTER 05: DISEASES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

🔵Immunity – Innate Vs Adaptive
🔴Cell types mediating both the types of immunity
🔵Receptors
🔵Types of lymphocytes – Memory, Naive and Effector
🔴MHC/ HLA
🔵Natural Killer Cells

🔴Antigen presenting Cells
🔵Cell mediated immunity Summary Fig 5.9 Fig 5.10
🔵Humoral immunity Summary Fig 5.11
🔴Hypersensitivity Types 1,2,3,4(vvvimp)
Tables 5.2 – 5.6
🔴Autoimmune Diseases Table 5.7

🔴Immunologic Tolerance – Central and Peripheral
🔴SLE :
🔴Diagnostic Criterion Table 5.10
🔴Autoantibodies Table 5.11
🔴Morphology
🔵Sjogren Syndrome
🔵Systemic sclerosis
🔵Transplant Rejection Overview – Hyperacute, Acute, Chronic 
🔴Graft Vs Host Disease
🔴AIDS overview
(If you have done it well in Micro, congratulations, you dont have to spend much time in this part of the island :D )
🔴Amyloidosis:
Pathogenesis, classification morphology & clinical features


CHAPTER 06: NEOPLASIA

⚪Definition- Unregulated, irreversible, monoclonal cell growth (Pathoma)
🔴Nomenclature Table 6.1
🔴Malignant Vs Benign Tumors
🔴Difference  between adenoma  & adenocarcinoma
🔴Difference between polyp & papilloma
🔴Difference between  carcinoma &  sarcoma
🔴Difference between mixed tumor & teratoma 
🔴Difference between choristoma & hemartoma
🔴Comparison between benign and malignant(differentiation ,rate of growth,local invasion,metastasis)

🔴Difference between dysplasia and carcinoma insitu
🔴Pathways of spread
🔵Occupational cancers table 6.2
🔴Genetic Lesions (Precursor lesion) 
🔴Fig 6.14 6.15
🔴Hallmarks of cancer Fig 6.17
🔴Examples of Self sufficiency in growth signals
🔴Role of RAS pathway in Cancer Fig 6.18
🔴Cyclins and cycling dependent kinases
🔴RB gene – Governor of the cell cycle 
Fig 6.19 6.20
 🔴p53 – Guardian of the genome
fig 6.21

🔴Warburg Effect – Altered cellular Metabolism 
🔵Autophagy inhibition in Cancer
🔵Oncometabolism
🔴Fig 6.25
🔵Summary box of Immortality
🔴Angiogenesis factors in Cancer
🔴Invasion steps Fig 6.27 & 6.28
🔵Immune surveillance Summary Box
🔵Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer Syndrome
🔴Carcinogenic Agents Table 6.5
🔴MOA of chemical Carcinogens
🔴Oncogenic Viruses and Bacteria
🔴Cancer Cachexia
🔴Paraneoplastic syndrome Table 6.6
🔴Grading and Staging of Cancer

🔴Tumor markers


Ladies and gentlemen, we are now heading towards our final two stops, where fortunately we'll not be spending much time!
For the most important sites mentioned below, Robbins will be your guide, but the remaining journey can be covered with Firdous, our junior guide. (Yes we have another, much easier guide to your rescue here :D )

CHAPTER 07: GENETIC & PEDIATRIC DISEASES

🔵Table 7.2
🔴Examples of Autosomal Dominant & Recessive, X-linked Dominant & Recessive Disorders
🔵Marfan Syndrome
🔴Cystic Fibrosis

🔴Phenylketonuria 
🔴Galactosemia 
🔴Cytogenetic Disorders involving Autosomes –
🔴Down Syndrome, Edward’s Syndrome Patau Syndrome 
🔴Cytogenetic Disorders involving Sex Chromosomes –
🔴Klienfelter Syndrome, Turner Syndrome 
🔵Prader Willi & Angelman Syndromes
🔴Table 7.6 – Causes of Congenital Malformations
🔴Respiratory Distress Syndrome/ Hyaline membrane Disease Fig 7.24
🔵Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 
🔴Fetal Hydrops – Immune Vs Non immune Table 7.8
🔴Neuroblastoma
🔴Wilms Tumor

CHAPTER 08: ENVIRONMENTAL AND NUTRITIONAL DISEASES 

🔵CO Poisoning 
🔵Lead poisoning 
🔵Table 8.2 – 8.5
🔵Fig 8.14
🔴Table 8.7 - 8.10
🔴Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM)
🔴Marasmus Vs Kwashiorkor
🔵Anorexia Nervosa Vs Bulimia
🔴Obesity 
🔴Energy Balance Circuit Fig 8.23

Ladies and Gentlemen, With this we complete our tour dé Pathology World, and are heading back to our Normal World. We'll be landing there soon.
We hope you had a pleasant flight and we look forward to hosting you again!
Thank you for choosing Kemunited, Great People to Fly With :)

Picture Credits: Pinterest, Giphy & cartoonstock



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